Fresh Instrumentation and control Engineering Project ideas

Yesterday, i received a request saying could u please tell of any good innovative topics based on instrumentation to do my mini project.. through my visitors chat box. So to make my visitors happy i have prepared a huge list of Industrial automation projects which is evolving in instrumentation sector.

  1. Automatic control system for rubber industries
  2. Film roll cutter
  3. Energy meter with ukg monitor for textile industries
  4. Design of irrigation controller for garden
  5. Industrial security system
  6. Hairness tester
  7. Injection moulding machine controller
  8. Yarn weight monitor & analyzer
  9. Yarn lee strength measurement
  10. Yarn thickness and breakage controller
  11. Automatic drainage timer for compressors
  12. Black rice remover
  13. Industrial monitor
  14. Automatic powerloom controller
  15. Yarn thickness and breakage monitor
  16. Yarn breakage monitor
  17. Yarn thickness monitor
  18. Pneumafil controller
  19. Ring frame controller for textile industries
  20. Plant humidification for agricultural land
  21. Plant humidification for textile industries
  22. Proximity calibration unit
  23. Automation brick making machine
  24. Automation of dying industry
  25. Solar cell tester
If you need more details on the project, use the below comment box to contact me.


Sensors Used in Instrumentation and Control

Ammeter - A meter to indicate electrical current. It is normally part of a DMM.

Bellows - This is a flexible volume that will expand or contract with a pressure change. This often looks like a cylinder with a large radius (typ. 2") but it is very thin (type 1/4"). It can be set up so that when pressure changes, the dis-placement of one side can be measured to determine pressure.

Bourdon tube - Widely used industrial gage to measure pressure and vacuum. It resembles a crescent moon. When the pressure inside changes the moon shape will tend to straighten out. By measuring the displacement of the tip the pressure can be measured.

Chromatographic instruments - laboratory-type instruments used to analyze chemical compounds and gases.

Inductance-coil pulse generator - transducer used to measure rotational speed. Output is pulse train.

Interferometers - These use the interference of light waves 180 degrees out of phase to determine distances.
Typical sources of the monochromatic light required are lasers.

Linear-Variable-Differential transformer (LVDT) electromechanical transducer used to measure angular or linear displacement. Output is Voltage

Manometer - liquid column gage used widely in industry to measure pressure.

Ohmmeter - meter to indicate electrical resistance.

Optical Pyrometer - device to measure temperature of an object at high temperatures by sensing the brightness of an objects surface.

Orifice Plate - widely used flowmeter to indicate fluid flow rates

Photometric Transducers - a class of transducers used to sense light, including phototubes, photodiodes, phototransistors, and photoconductors.

Piezoelectric Accelerometer - Transducer used to measure vibration. Output is emf.

Pitot Tube - Laboratory device used to measure flow.

Positive displacement Flowmeter - Variety of transducers used to measure flow. Typical output is pulse train.
Potentiometer - instrument used to measure voltage.

Pressure Transducers - A class of transducers used to measure pressure. Typical output is voltage. Operation of the transducer can be based on strain gages or other devices.

Radiation pyrometer - device to measure temperature by sensing the thermal radiation emitted from the object.

Resolver - this device is similar to an incremental encoder, except that it uses coils to generate magnetic fields. This is like a rotary transformer.

Strain Gage - Widely used to indicate torque, force, pressure, and other variables. Output is change in resistance due to strain, which can be converted into voltage.

Thermistor - Also called a resistance thermometer; an instrument used to measure temperature. Operation is based on change in resistance as a function of temperature.

Thermocouple - widely used temperature transducer based on the Seebeck effect, in which a junction of two dissimilar metals emits emf related to temperature.

Turbine Flowmeter - transducer to measure flow rate. Output is pulse train.

Venturi Tube - device used to measure flow rates.

i hope you enjoyed this post, comment me for any clarification.


Instrumentation Engineers & Designers Wanted

International engineering design company is recruiting Instrumentation Engineers & Designers for short term assignment based in Brunei.

Desired candidate should have strong background in design.

You should be available immediately,

Excellent salary and rates offer for work in Brunei

Brunei offer tax free salary,

Please apply with your available and expected day rate, accommodation will be provided.

Only apply if you can join within two weeks and interested to work on short term role.

Status: Contract
Location: Kuala Lumpur, INTERNATIONAL
Advert Published: 21 Nov 2011
Expiry date: 5 Dec 2011
OilCareers Ref. No.: J611311


Spiral bimetallic thermometer

Basic principle of Spiral bimetallic thermometer

When a bimetallic spiral fixed at one end and free at the other end is subjected to a temperature change, the free end of the bimetallic spiral deflects proportional to the change in temperature. This deflection becomes a measure of the change in temperature.

Description of Spiral bimetallic thermometer

construction of Spiral bimetallic thermometerThe main parts of a spiral bimetallic thermometer are as follows:
A bimetallic spiral which is fixed at one end to the body of the instrument and free at its other end.
To the free end of the bimetallic spiral is attached to a free floating shaft.
One end of the shaft is mounted in a fraction less arrangement and its other end is connected to a pointer which sweeps over a temperature calibrated circular dial graduated in degrees of temperature.

Operation of Spiral bimetallic thermometer

image of Spiral bimetallic thermometerWhen a temperature of a medium is to be measured, the bimetallic thermometer is introduced into the medium for a length ‘L’

The bimetallic spiral senses the temperature and expands resulting in a deflection at its free end.

This deflection at the free end of the bimetallic spiral rotates the free floating shaft connected to it. When the free floating shaft rotates, the pointer attached to the shaft moves to a new position on the temperature calibrated dial including the measured temperature.


Helix Bimetallic Thermometer

This article is a continuation of my previous post on Bimetallic Thermometer

Basic principle of Helix Bimetallic Thermometer:

When a bimetallic helix fixed at one end and free at the other end is subjected to a temperature change, the free end of the bimetallic helix deflects proportional to the change in temperature. This deflection becomes a measure of the change in temperature.

Description of Helix Bimetallic Thermometer:

  1. The main parts of a helix bimetallic thermometer are as follows:
  2. A bimetallic helix which is fixed at one end to the body of the instrument and free at its other end.
  3. To the free end of the bimetallic helix is attached a shaft.
  4. One end of the shaft is mounted in friction less arrangement and its other end is connected to a pointer which sweeps over a temperature calibrated circular dial graduated in degrees of temperature.

Operation of Helix Bimetallic Thermometer:

When temperature of a medium is to be measured, the bimetallic thermometer is introduced into the medium for a length “L”
The bimetallic helix senses the temperature and expands resulting in a deflection at its free end.
This deflection at the free end of the bimetallic helix rotates the shaft connected to it. When the shaft rotates , the pointer attached to the shaft moves to a new position on the temperature calibrated dial indicating the measured temperature.


Ultrasonics – Introduction.

Vibrations upto 20,000 cycles can be heard by human beings and so, the frequency range upto 20KHz is called sonic frequency. Sound waves do not belong to the electromagnetic wave family like heat and light. As such, study of sound waves is not exactly an electronic branch. However most of the ultrasonic sound waves find very valuable industrial applications as flaw direction, submarine communication, electronic soldering and welding.

Ultrasonics is today applied in medical diagnosis (echo-scanning) as an alternative to X-ray scanning. Production of ultrasonic sound waves involves use of electronic oscillators called transducers. Use of ultrasonic waves does not involve harmful wave radiation. Radiation is present in other methods for the applications mentioned above. Hence ultrasonics is a welcome substitute for electromagnetic waves in many industrial applications.

Properties of ultrasound.

The ultrasonic waves travel in different media with different velocities. In air it travels at 330m/sec. The velocities in liquids and solids range from 1200m/s to 4000m/s respectively. The property of a medium to conduct ultrasonic waves is represented in its acoustic impedance. When ultrasound travels through a homogeneous medium there is not change of velocity or wavelength and hence it essentially continues in a straight line. When the ultrasound beam reaches an interface between two different media, it undergoes reflection and refraction.

The reflected wave may be termed as the ultrasonic echo. The echoes produced by large objects with smooth surface are specular echoes. Much energy is returned by these specular echoes. Echoes from small objects with irregular shapes are called scattered echoes. When ultrasound gets reflected irregularly in multiple directions, only a small part of ultrasonic energy returns to the source. Through analysis of reflected waves leads to several useful applications in industry and medicine. The properties of ultrasound are summed up as follows:

  1. Can be directed into a beam.
  2. Obeys laws of reflection and refraction.
  3. Is reflected by small objects.
  4. Permits recording of clear echoes from interface that are approximately 1 mm part.


Instrumentation Engineer Sample Resume

Hello friends, a special post for Instrumentation engineers seeking a job.

Jimmy Freeney
56987 Calumet Ave, Apt#9
New York, NY 10040
Cell: 123-423-8999

Career Profile:

Seeking the position of an instrumentation design engineer with a view to utilize my professional experience in a renowned organization

Professional strengths:

  • Comprehensive knowledge of engineering techniques and instrumentation designing
  • Possess strong technical aptitude including applicable engineering tools and systems
  • In-depth knowledge of optics design, instrumentation and C++ programming
  • Familiar with Linux and UNIX working environment
  • Possess strong leadership and interpersonal skills
  • Effective communicator with outstanding management and organizational skills

Educational Qualifications:

Achieved Master's degree in Electrical Engineering
University of New York in the year 2007

Achieved Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering
Engineering College of New York in the year 2004

Work Experience:

Organization: GE Engineering Services, New York
Duration: May 2009 till date
Designation: Instrumentation Design Engineer

  1. Responsible for designing, analyzing and evaluating assigned projects by using engineering principles and by adhering to the business standards, practices, procedures and product / program requirements
  2. Handle the tasks of providing technical leadership to personnel supporting the assigned project
  3. Perform responsibilities of documenting technical data generated by the assigned project consistent with engineering policies and procedures
  4. Responsible for providing timely communications on significant issues or developments to the instrumentation manager
  5. Play active role in addressing organizational initiatives and generic issues
  6. Ensure proper documentation of technical data generated for the assigned projects by following the engineering policies and procedures

Organization: Almec Engineering, New York
Duration: March 2007 to April 2009
Designation: Junior Instrumentation Design Engineer

  1. Responsible for the process and mechanical design of oilfield equipment including water, gas separators and gas compressors
  2. Handle the tasks of preparing technical proposals and interpreting customer specifications
  3. Coordinate with vendors and sublets to specify and source instrumentation and accessories
  4. Perform responsibilities of evaluating and assisting instrumentation design engineer in the development of new technologies
  5. Work with customer to evaluate, test or assist in commissioning equipment

Personal Information:

Name: Jimmy Freeney
Date of Birth: 23/05/1982
Employment Status: Full time
Relationship status: Married


Will be pleased to provide upon request


Model Interview Questions for Instrumentation Engineers

Prepare yourself to get your job as your final sem is nearly.

1.) How much salary you’re Expecting?
Answer : I would expect a salary which reflects the experience and qualifications that I bring to the role.

Alternate Answer : Based on the information I have about the position, a salary in the range 15,000 - 18,000 would reflect the experience and expertise that I would bring to the role.

2)Why did you take Instrumentation as your branch in Engineering?

Answer:After having passed my class 12th examination,I actually didn’t have any idea about what was involved in Instrumentation.But I wanted to built my career around something from where we could control and monitor a whole industry.

3.) What kind of person would you refuse to work with?
Well, I am a person, who can work with all kinds of people. However, I feel bit uncomfortable to work with persons of selfish and ingratitude in nature.

4.) What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?
Every should learn from his mistake. I always try to consult my mistakes with my kith and kin especially with elderly and experienced person.

5.) What is more important to you: the money or the work?
Money and work both are like siblings. But I believe when you work hard; money will flow to you. So work is more important than money. Only hard work can help you put another feather in your success cap.

6.) Why do you want to join in industry?
industry is a place where the graduates have the opportunity to apply their skills n knowledge which they learn from their respective institutions. so feel industry is a best way for a person to applying their practical knowledge.

7.) Are you a team player?
while answering this question, try to keep yourself on both sides. For example, if the interviewer asks if you prefer to work alone or on a team, he may be trying to get you to say you are one way or the other. But you don't have to play this game. The reality is that most jobs require us to work both independently and in teams. Your response to this question should show that you have been successful in both situations or (In case you don’t find yourself comfy with team work say this) - I believe in individual work recognition [this would not put your weakness in front of others that strongly, Remember people who take interviews are super masters, do not fool them]

8)What is your greatest strength?
My greatest strength includes my analytical approach, my strong logics and my patience


A Complete Note on Difference between Lab View, PLC and DCS

Yesterday, i receive a question from one of my facebook fan asking " sir could u please say the difference between labview and plc and dcs "

As far as i know Lab View is completely different from DCS and PLC, Labview is a software.

LabVIEW is a graphical programming environment used by millions of engineers and scientists to develop sophisticated measurement, test, and control systems using intuitive graphical icons and wires that resemble a flowchart. It offers unrivaled integration with thousands of hardware devices and provides hundreds of built-in libraries for advanced analysis and data visualization – all for creating virtual instrumentation. The LabVIEW platform is scalable across multiple targets and OSs, and, since its introduction in 1986, it has become an industry leader.

A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for communication and monitoring.

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or Programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

The differences between DCS and PLC are: DCS (Distributed Control System) is a CONTROL SYSTEM that works using several controllers and coordinates the work of all these controllers. Each controller is handling a separate plant. This controller is referred to the PLC.

The PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a CONTROLLER which can be re-program back. If the PLC is only a stand-alone and not combined with other PLCs, it is called as DDC. It means PLC is a sub system of a large system called DCS.

What’s difference between PLC and DCS by its definition:
PLC is a controller or processor that can be programmed (programmable) whose function is to run (execute) logic functions. Logic means the discrete / sequence function is usually handled by the relay. From the beginning of the vendors who carry the name of the PLC is engaged in the business discrete / sequence control.

Regardless of the distributed control system (as opposed to the DDC = Direct Digital Control) is categorized as a DCS. In DDC all system controls are done in the central processor so that if it failed, the entire control plant will also failed. DDC is mostly used as a Regulatory Control. And from the beginning vendors that carry the name of DCS is to use the product as a regulatory control.

Different in functionality means that the DCS and PLC can not be implemented on the same application.
1. DCS is not a large PLC. Because system architecture of DCS and PLC are different.
2. DCS is not PLCs that integrated into one large system. "Controller" in the PLC is more intended as a "Logic Controller", while “Controller” in the DCS is more intended as a "Process Controller".
3. Both DCS and PLC is a configurable and reconfigurable.


Senior PLC / SCADA Engineer Wanted in UK

We are currently looking for Senior PLC / SCADA / HMI Engineers to be based in the UK (contract & permanent roles). The Senior Control Systems Engineer possesses and demonstrates a diverse set of technical skills and product knowledge. They have the ability to work on both hardware and software across various platforms. You will possess at least 3 years experience of engineering design within the Control and Instrumentation environment with ever increasing levels of responsibility.

You will be degree qualified in a related technical discipline or equivalent work experience. Ideally should also hold (or be prepared to take) an offshore medical and survival certificate. You will have proven track record in engineering, commissioning, trouble-shooting, maintaining and upgrading complex control and safety systems (PLC - Siemens, Allen Bradley, GE Fanuc, Mitsubishi; SCADA - InTouch, RSView, iFix / Fix32, WinCC; Fire & Gas and ESD). Experience in the Oil & Gas industry is preferred. Candidates must be prepared to travel to client sites (both in the UK and abroad) as required. There may be an element of offshore working with this role. Please apply for more information. Longbridge Technology is acting as a Recruitment Agency with regards to this vacancy.

Desired Skills/Experience:Siemens S5/S7, Allen Bradley, RSLogix, Controllogix, Compactlogix, GE Fanuc, Mitsubishi, InTouch, RSView, iFix / Fix32, WinCC, WinCC Flexible, Fire & Gas, ESD, ArchestrA, Flow Metering
Minimum Experience:3 years
Remuneration:35000 - 50000 UK Pounds/year
Advert Published:28 Oct 2011
Expiry date:11 Nov 2011
OilCareers Ref. No.:J595243
Work Permit Requirements:EUROPEAN UNION
(Applications will only be considered from people who are authorised to work in this location by being a national of that country or region, or by holding a valid work permit.)


Distributed Control System - Architecture Part 2

This part is the continuation of my previous post on Distributed Control System - Architecture. The figure below shows a generalized architecture of disturbed control system.

The explanation of each block is given below:

Local control unit (LCU)

The smallest collection of hardware in the system that can do closed – loop control. The LCU interfaces directly to the process.

Low level human interface (LLHI)

A device that allows the operator or instrument engineer to interact with the local control unit (e.g to change set points, control nodes, control configuration or tunning parameters) using a direct connection. LLHI’s can also interface directly to the process. Operator oriented hardware at this level is called low level operator interface, instrument engineer – orientated hardware is called a low level operator interface, instrument engineering interface.

Data Input / output unit (DI/OU)

A device that interfaces to the process solely for the purpose of acquiring or outputting data. It performs no control function.

High level human interface (HLHI)

A collection of hardware that perform functions similar to the LLHI but with increased capability and user friendliness. It interfaces to other devices only over the shared communication fatuities. Operator – oriented hardware at this level is called high level operator interface, instrument engineer oriented hardware is called high level engineering interface.

High level computing device (HLCD)

A collection of micro processor based hardware that performs plant management functions traditionally performed by a plant computer. It interfaces to other devices only other the shared communication facilities.

Computer interface devices (CID)

A collection of hardware that allows an external generate purpose computer to interact with other devices in the distributed control system using the shared communication facilities.

Shared communication facilities

One or more levels of communication hardware and association software that allows the sharing of data among all devices in the distributed system should communicate channels between specific devices as between hardware elements within a device.


Instrumentation and Control Interview Questions and Answers

I hope it is time for the final year students to prepare for placement and this post is to share Mr.Patel's Interview experience.

If you are looking for the Instrumentation interview question and answers, you can navigate to the bottom section of the post.

ESSAR instrumentation paper on 18th may, Gandhi nagar.

Hello friend, my name chandresh patel from government engineering college gandhinagar, sec-28 & want to share my experience about selection procedure of ESSAR.

60% aggregate marks.

Selection process:-

Online written test:-

4 sections:- Quantitative aptitude, Reasoning, English, Technical.

It is the most important round of the selection process. The first three sections are easy & if you prepare well for aptitude from R S Agrwal. Then it won’t be a problem. But the time is very less so u must be fast.

For the technical section, they asked basic question from the whole instrumentation. for this Section u must prepare well. They asked from all the subject of previous semester. So the basic fundamental must be clear.

Some of questions like....
  1. Range of any specific type thermocouple.
  2. About plc & dcs.
  3. Digital technology.(flip-flop etc...)
  4. Transducers & their principles.
  5. op-amp based question.
  6. 4-20ma related questions.
After this written section the result was declared & fortunately i was selected for group discussion.

Group discussion:
This part is put just for formality. No one was eliminated from this round.

Personal interview:-
There were two sections in personal interview.
  1. Technical.
  2. HR.

In technical, they asked me about myself, and then start some technical question related to plc & dcs. Control valves, three element boiler control, and cascade, discuss my 8th semester project. The sir was very friendly & asks me about my interest & it was great experience. The main thing is your confidence & must be confident.

In HR, they asked me very simple question like why do u want to join essar? , family background, why don’t u want to study further. just answer honestly. Don’t be over smart. After 15 days they send result to out college TPO. & i was selected.

Best of luck............

Download the eBook to know about the instrumentation  interview question and answers asked in the placement time click here

You can contact me through the below comments box, if you want any help in interview questions and answers.


Distributed Control System - Architecture

This post is a continuation of my previous post on Distributed Control System

The structure of a DCS is often referred to as its architecture. In terms of functional modules, DCS’s from various vendors have lot in same. The image below gives the architecture of generalized DCS. The following major inter connected technologies have been used for distributed control.

  1. Shared bus
  2. Ring and
  3. Hierarchical.
In shared bus systems the connected processors communicated over a common channel using time-sharing, thus allowing attached computers to transmit information in short-duration, high speed bursts.

A ring system consists of high speed, unidirectional digital communication channel (e.g. fiber optics link, twisted-wire pair, etc.) which’s arranged as a closed loop or ring microcomputers are attached to the ring by ring – interface units.

A hierarchical system consists of number of minicomputers or microcomputers inter connected in a tree structure.

The data collection and direct – control activities are handled at the lowest level, where as data processing, summary processing and co ordination are performed at higher levels.

The proper selection of architecture including software and type of processors greatly influences the performance of the distributed control system. Variations in the architecture are determined by several factors, such as memory size and rate, data paths between computers, usage flow control and error checking and recovery.

In the next post, I will discuss about the distributed control system architecture in depth.


The Zener Diode

Electronic Devices plays an important role in sensors and controllers which are the two eyes of instrumentation and control engineering. So i am slowly going to discuss about the important electronic devices in our blog.

Zener diode is a specially designed PN junction diode. a reverse biased, heavily doped PN junction diode which is operated in the breakdown region is known as zener diode. It is also called a voltage regulator diode or breakdown diode.

Construction of Zener Diode:


zener-diode-constrctionFigure 1 shows the symbol of a zener diode. it is similar to the symbol of an ordinary PN junction diode except that its bar is just turned into Z shape. Figure 2 shows a practical equivalent circuit of a zener diode. this circuit shows that a zener diode is equivalent to a battery with voltage (Vz) called zener voltage in series with a resistance (rz) called zener resistance.

Working Principle of Zener Diode:

We will see the working of zener diode as two sections like forward bias and reverse bias.

Forward bias:

zener diode forward bias

Figure 3 shows the arrangement for forward bias. The positive terminal of the battery is connected to the anode (A) and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the cathode (K). When applied voltage is zero no current flows through the zener diode. when the forward biasing voltage is increased the potential barrier is reduced and the current starts flowing in the circuit.

Reverse Bias:

zener diode reverse bias

Figure 4 shows the arrangement for reverse bias. The negative terminal of a battery is connected to the anode (A) and positive terminal of the battery is connected to cathode (K). the reverse bias operation is explained in VI characteristic.

V-I characteristic of zener diode.


The forward and reverse V-I characteristic shown in the figure 5. The forward current increases slowly upto the knee voltage. Beyond this voltage the current increases sharply with increase in applied voltage. Thus under forward bias condition zener diode acts like an ordinary PN junction diode.

Under reverse bias condition a small reverse current flows through the zener diode. When a reverse voltage across a zener diode is increased, a critical voltage called breakdown voltage is reached at which the reverse current increases sharply as shown by the curve PQ in the figure 5. This breakdown voltage is called zener breakdown voltage or simply zener voltage. This voltage is almost constant over the operating region. This ability of a diode is called regulating ability and is an important feature of a zener diode. It maintains an essentially a constant voltage across its terminal over a specified range of zener current values.

Vz – Zener breakdown voltage.
Iz (min) – A minimum value of zener current called break over current.
Iz (max) – A maximum value of zener current above which the zener diode may be damaged.

Zener break-down

Zener breakdown takes when both sides of the junction are very heavily doped and the depletion layer is thin. When a small reverse voltage is applied a very strong electric field is set up across the thin depletion layer. This electric field is enough to break the covalent bonds. Now extremely large number of free charge carriers are produced which constitute the zener current. This process is known as zener breakdown. In this process the junction is not damaged. The junction regains its original position when the reverse voltage is removed.

Avalanche breakdown

The avalanche breakdown takes place when both sides of the junction are lightly doped and the depletion layer is large. When the reverse bias voltage is increased, the accelerated free electron collides with the semiconductor atoms in the depletion region. Due to the collision with valence electrons, covalent bonds are broken and electron-hole pairs are generated. These new charge carriers so produced acquire energy from applied potential and in turn produced additional carriers. This forms avalanche multiplication. This avalanche multiplication causes the reverse current to increase rapidly. This leads to avalanche breakdown. Once this breakdown occurs the junction cannot regain its original position. This breakdown occurs at higher reverse voltage as shown in the figure 6.

Applications of zener diode.

  • It can be used as a voltage regulator.
  • It can be used as a limiter in wave shaping circuits.
  • It can be used as a fixed reference voltage in transistor biasing circuits.
  • It is used for meter protection against damage from accidental over voltage.
  • It can be used as a fixed reference voltage in a network for calibrating voltmeters.
Please use the comments box to clarify your doubts.


Torque Equation for PMMC

This post is a continuation of my previous post on Permanent magnet moving coil instruments . This post is written since a is request made by the face book user Shivany Sweet

Torque Equation for PMMC

The equation for the delevoped torque of the PMMC can be obtained from the basic law of electromagnetic torque. The deflecting torque is given by,

                                                   Td = NBAI

Td = deflecting torque in N-m
B = flux density in air gap, Wb/m2
N = Number of turns of the coils
A = effective area of coil m2
I = current in the moving coil, amperes

Therefore, Td = GI
Where, G = NBA = constant

The controlling torque is provided by the springs and is proportional to the angular deflection of the pointer.
                                               Tc = KØ

Tc = Controlling Torque
K = Spring Constant Nm/rad or Nm/deg
Ø = angular deflection
For the final steady state position,
                        Td = Tc
Therefore GI = KØ
So,                      Ø = (G/K)I          or            I = (K/G) Ø

Thus the deflection is directly proportional to the current passing through the coil. The pointer deflection can therefore be used to measure current.


Distributed control system:


A collection of processing elements, which are inter connected both logically and physically with decentralized system, wide control of resources for co-operative execution of application programs.

A DCS consists of a number of microprocessor – based modules that work together to control and monitor a plant’s operations. The modules are distributed graphically.

Distributed processing is useful in process control for the following reasons:

  1. DCS gives increased performance through resource sharing.
  2. Increased reliability.
  3. Modularity and expandability.
  4. Reduced cabling cost (i.e., field wiring and installation)
  5. It also reduces risk by distributing the control function throughout a number of small modules rather than concentrating it in one large module.

Disadvantages of Distributed control system:

Increased software development cost, more complex failure diagnosis and dependence on communication technology. These have been over come to a great extent by the development of high – level languages and structured – programming concept, communication technology (e.g. fiber optics) and fault – diagnosis methods.

In my next post, I will explain about DCS Architecture.


ABB wins Eskom upgrade contract - Instrumentation News

POWER and automation technology group ABB has won an order from Eskom for the provision of new equipment for the utility’s Arnot power station in Mpumalanga.

ABB yesterday said its control and instrumentation system would integrate Arnot’s water treatment plant, condensate plant regeneration, condensate polishing plant, and ammonia and sedimentation plant into one common plant network.

The scope of the project, which started this month, includes design, production engineering, factory testing, delivery, installation, commissioning, operational acceptance testing, plant documentation and training, ABB said.

The project would be implemented over 20 months, ABB said.

"ABB experts have engaged with the customer to develop operation and control philosophies for implementing on our control system. This will fully automate and allow remote central operation of the plant and provide a safer working environment for plant workers," Carlos Pone, country manager of ABB SA, said yesterday.

The need to upgrade Arnot arose because of the current manual operation with dangerous chemicals and the labour-intensive working environment where operators might be prone to errors, ABB said.

Eskom is investigating the circumstances that led to a blast in its Duvha power station earlier this year. The reasons for the accident, which has taken out 600MW from the national electricity system, are still unknown.

Eskom CE Brian Dames last month said that the unit, which was damaged in the accident, could be returned to service by next June.

ABB said it had recently completed the Kendal power station water treatment plant, which uses the same technology platform as offered for Arnot.

"ABB has an experienced engineering team with water treatment plant process knowledge and because safety is important not just for us at ABB but for our customers , we are pleased to provide automation solutions that address the plant safety issues," Mr Pone said.

This is the latest of several contracts that ABB has won from Eskom. These include a two-year contract for the expansion and replacement of high-voltage products for the transmission network in the country.

ABB said that power utilities and municipalities in Southern Africa and sub-Saharan Africa are investing in improving infrastructure to ensure reliable power supply.


E&I Engineer Wanted in UK

Our client has a strong focus on the growing deepwater subsea umbilical, riser and flowline markets in Africa, Asia Pacific, Brazil and the Gulf of Mexico as well as a leading role in the North Sea. Employing over 5,000 personnel onshore and offshore they are one of the world's leading subsea engineering and construction companies servicing the Oil & Gas industry.

As E&I Engineer your main responsibilities will include:

Contribute to creating a positive HSEQ culture within the company.

Actively contribute to position the Offshore Resources Technical & Engineering Department as a centre of electrical engineering expertise within the company.

Support Offshore Resources Marine Superintendents in identifying and proposing CAPEX related to shipboard electrical systems .

Prepare detailed budgets (with the assistance of OR cost controllers) required to support the CAPEX approval process (new equipments, upgrades, conversions, refits) including engineering phase, procurement and certification, transportation, installation & commissioning.

Perform concept engineering works for marine power generation and electrical distribution systems during refit projects, conversions or new buildings.

Perform preliminary electrical engineering works required to support installations of new marine & construction equipments or modifications and/or improvements planned for existing equipments .

Prepare detailed engineering scopes of work when required, technical specifications, participate in the sourcing of electrical engineering subcontractors & equipments manufacturers with Offshore Resources SCM Department.

Manage or undertake site surveys on board vessels as required during the engineering phase .
Manage commissioning activities as per the approved quality plan and set off all technical claims if required with the relevant subcontractors.

Ensure proper handovers to Marine Superintendents and ship crew will be performed in an orderly and timely manner .

Ensure for all new equipments delivered on board vessels that manuals, drawings, lift plans and maintenance information are part of the deliverables to be handed over to the Marine Superintendents.

This is a permanent position

If you feel that you are well suited to the above opportunity and would like to find out more then please contact Orion Group for more information or apply by forwarding your current CV quoting reference 77218

Status: Staff
Required Skills/Experience: E&I Engineer
Location: Aberdeen, UNITED KINGDOM
Advert Published: 4 Sep 2011
Expiry date: 4 Oct 2011
Orion Group Ref. No.:
OilCareers Ref. No.: J560255
Work Permit: Requirements: EUROPEAN UNION
(Applications will only be considered from people who are authorised to work in this location by being a national of that country or region, or by holding a valid work permit.)


Automatic Mains Failure Solution - Instrrumentation Project

Now a days we often see power cut every now and then, mains supply fails at any time of the day without prior information, this causes lot of trouble specially during summer. Life gets almost paralized without an electric power.Power inverters and ups solves this problem up to certain extend for low power consumers, specially household domestic loads and small shops can make use of this type of solution.

instrumentation projectsBut industrial sector gets effected more with power cut. Industries have now started installing diesel generator sets in their units. Even larger societies in the Metro cities have started installing diesel generator sets. Manual starting of the generator takes some time and causes panic to the people struck inside the lift compartment when the supply fails suddenly. Other people equally get effected other places.

It provides reliable and accurate start/stop operation of the D.G.SET with AUTO LOAD CHANGE OVER FROM D.G.AND MAINS and FAULT ANNUNCIATION for the safety of the D.G. SET

This project is a proper solution to the above problem as name stands AUTO MAIN FAILURE SOLUTION (AMFS). What it dose ?

It senses the main supply failure and give starting pulse to diesel generator through start solenoid.

If the generator dose not get started with the first attempt ,it will make two more attempts to start the D.G.set. When it fails to start with three attempts, it will sound an alarm with indication “ STRAT FAIL”.

Even if the engine starts normally but alternator dose not produce the required voltage, in that case “ALTERNATOR FAIL” signal will come.

After the gen set has started normally and it has come to normal voltage ,it will switch on its breaker automatically (auto-on-load).

During normally running condition, if any fault occurs on the engine side, it will stop automatically with the respective fault and buzzer indication.

when the main supply get re-stored, it will change over to mains and switch off the D.G. set automatically.

It can be operated on both auto or manual mode.

Comment me if interested..


Programmable Logic Controller - PLC

Hello friends, in this post I am going to start sharing a information related to a new topic Programmable Logic Controller which plays a very important role in automation of every industry.

Evolution of PLC ?

Manufacturing process require a sequence of operations in order to make a product.
And in this case sequencing can be done by manually or some type of controller.
In late 1960’s sequencing operations are performed by using a bank of relays wired to perform a particular job.
But there were drawbacks, logic systems where difficult to reprogram for production changes and also troubleshooting is very difficult.

To avoid the above drawbacks PLC’s are used.

PLC’s use the sum relay logic function and sequence is not hard wired but can be programmed and stored in a memory.
The contents of the memory are easily changed.
PLC’s are used first by automobile industries.


Instrumentation Ebooks in PDF File

You can download all my ebook collections related to instrumentation and control engineering with the below available links.

Instrumentation ebooks

Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation (37 MB pdf)
Instrumentation Engineers Handbook (7.14 MB pdf)
Engineering Instruments and Meters (58.22 MB pdf)
Instrument Engineer's Handbook for DURCO Quarter-turn Control Valves (1.37 MB pdf)
Instrumentation Pocket Guide (12.68 MB rar)
Introduction to Instrumentation, Sensors, and Process Control (2.72 MB pdf)
Remote Instrumentation (96.24 KB pdf)
Applied Technology and Instrumentation for Process Control (5.77 MB rar)
Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices And Basic PID Control (1.88 MB pdf)
Field Instrumentation Technical Handbook (332 KB pdf)
Measurement And Instrumentation Principles (2.89 MB rar)
4 Biggest Mistakes In Instrumentation And How to Avoid Them (154 KB pdf)
Instrument Symbol Identifiers (525.94 KB pdf) 

Orifice Meter Ebooks

The Orifice Meter and Gas Measurement (7.69 MB pdf)
Measurement of Gas and Liquids by Orifice Meter (12.37 MB pdf)
PACs : Understanding PACs (Programmable Automation Controllers) in Industrial Automation (528 KB)
PlantWeb : Best Total Value (1.65 MB pdf)
Process Training Control System (740 KB ppt)
Process / Industrial Instruments And Controls Handbook (16.12 MB rar)
Programmable Controllers Theory and Implementation (5.29 MB pdf)
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Control (184 KB pdf)
Pressure and Temperature Handbook (76 KB pdf)
Pressure Measurement Handbook (817.39 KB pdf)
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria (641.93 KB pdf)
Production and Measurement of High Vacuum (29.74 MB pdf)
Petroleum and Gas Field Processing (3.6 MB pdf) 

PLC ebooks

PLC Basics (4 MB pdf)
PLC Glossary (92 KB pdf)
PLC Laws (32 KB pdf)
PLC Primer (252 KB pdf)
DCS or PLC? (216 KB pdf)
Programmable Logic Controllers 4th Edition (2.63 MB pdf)
Programmable Logic Controllers And Ladder Logic (570 KB pdf)
Programmable Controllers Theory and Implementation (5.29 MB pdf)
Automating Manufacturing Systems with PLCs (10.75 MB pdf)
Introduction to PLC Programming and Implementation - from relay logic to PLC logic (1.33 MB pdf)
PLC - based Process Control Engineering Guide (5.46 MB pdf)


SCADA Primer (245 KB pdf)
SCADAless SCADA Using Wireless Mesh Radio Telemetry (45.05 KB pdf)
Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering (321 KB pdf)
Theory and Practice of pH Measurement (1.74 MB pdf)
The Modern Revolution in Physics (5.29 MB pdf)


Seminar Contents for Virtual Instrumentation Topic

This Post is on behalf of the request made by sagar ranjan sahu, hemender, Mohamad Thajmal, since they have requested seminar details on the topic Virtual Instrumentation.

I have video to share with you, to know more about virutual instrumentation presented by National Instruments.

You can even download this video using youtube downloader, so that you present it in the seminar.

Complete details on Virtual Instrumentation is uploaded as a PDF file provided by

Download it here Virtual Instrumentation


How to select a Transducer ?

In a measurement system the transducer is the input element with critical function of transforming some physical quantity to a proportional electrical signal. Selection of the appropriate transducer is therefore the first and perhaps most important step in obtaining accurate results in every instrumentation and control system. A number of elementary questions should be asked before a transducer can be selected, for example,

  • What is the physical quantity to be measured?
  • Which transducer principle can be used to measure this quantity?
  • What accuracy is required for this measurement?

The first question can be answered by determining the type and range of the measurand. An appropriate answer to the second question requires that the input and output characteristics of the transducer be compatible with the recording or measurement system. In most cases, these two questions can be answered readily, implying that the proper transducer is selected simply by the addition of an accuracy tolerance. In practice, this is rarely possible due to the complexity of the various transducer parameters that affects the accuracy. The accuracy requirements of the total system determine the degree to which individual factors contributing to accuracy must be considered. Some of these factors are:

  1. Fundamental transducer parameters: type and range of measurand, sensitivity, excitation
  2. Physical conditions: mechanical and electrical connections, mounting provisions, corrosion resistance.
  3. Ambient conditions: nonlinearity effects, hysteresis effects, frequency response, resolutions
  4. Environmental conditions: temperature effects, acceleration, shock and vibration
  5. Compatibility of the associated equipment: zero balance provisions, sensitivity tolerance, impedance matching, insulation resistance.

Categories 1 and 2 are basic electrical and mechanical characteristics of the transducer. Transducer accuracy, as an independent component, is contained in categories 3 and 4. Category 5 considers the transducer’s compatibility with its associated system equipment.

The total measurement error in a transducer-activated system may be reduced to fall within the required accuracy range by the following techniques:

  1. Using in-place system calibration with corrections performed in the data reduction
  2. Simultaneously monitoring the environment and correcting the data accordingly.
  3. Artificially controlling the environment to minimize possible errors.

Some individual errors are predictable and can be calibrated out of the system. When the entire system is calibrated, these calibration date may then be used to correct the recorded data. Environmental errors can be corrected by data reduction if the environmental effects are recorded simultaneously with the actual data. Then the data are corrected by using the known environmental characteristics of the transducers. These two techniques can provide a significant increase in system accuracy.

Another method to improve overall system accuracy is to control artificially the environment of the transducer. If the environment of the transducer can be kept unchanged, these errors are reduced to zero. This type of control may require either physically moving the transducer to a more favorable position or providing the required isolation from the environment by heater enclosure, vibration isolation, or similar means.


Softwares Related to Instrumentation and Control Engineering

In this post, i wish to share some softwares related to Instrumentation and control. The Software that we will be discussing about are Lab View, MATLAB, Scilab, Measurement Studio and PSpice


LabView Stands for Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench. It is mostly used for automating the usage of processing and measuring equipments in all the laboratory setup. It is used in the field of Industrial automation, Instrument control, data acquisition and more.

It runs on variety of platforms like Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux and Apple Mac X.

Software Website:
You can download the Student edition, if interested from here:


MATLAB is a computing language and interactive environment for data visualization, algorithm development, data analysis and full of numeric computation. It is mostly used for image processing, communication, test and measurements, control design and much more.

MATLAB runs on Microsoft Windows and Latest Verions released on march 2010 supports Mac.

Software Website :
Trail version is also available


Scilab is a numerical computation package which is very important in instrumentation and control engineering. It is  also used in data analysis, signal processing, simulation of fluid dynamics and image enhancement.

It is a open source software alternative for MATLAB.

Software website :
It is completely free, you can download it from here

Measurement Studio:

It is a child software from National Instruments which integrates with visual studio software, highly recommended for Visual studio .net programmers. It is compeletly designed for engineers and scientists building test, measurement, and control applications in Visual Studio 2010/2008/2005.

Software website :
Trail Version is available here :

PSpice :

This software is developed to run on personal computers hence the letter P is capitalized.  This software is a analog circuit and digital logic simulation software. It is used for electronic design automation.

It runs on windows os, sun workstation and Apple Mac

Download a free student version here:


Seminar Topics for Instrumentation and Control Engineering

The list of seminar topics for instrumentation and control engineering are as follows. Please use the Search the box to know more about the particular seminar topic.

  1. Virtual Instrumentation
  2. Military Radars
  3. Nanotechnological proposal of RBC
  4. Fiber optic sensor and its applications
  5. Robotic Sensors
  6. Vibration Measurement And Monitoring System
  7. Optical Coherence Tomography
  8. Ultra-Wideband
  9. Advances in Photovoltaic Technology
  10. Data transmission and telemetry
  11. Virtual retinal display (VRD) Technology
  12. Mass flow measurement
  13. Ultrasonic Generation & Application.
  14. Passive Integration
  15. Cellular Digital Packet Data (Cdpd)
  16. Artificial intelligence
  17. Fuzzy Logic
  18. Light Source for Fiber Optics
  19. Infrared Temperature Measurement
  20. Fuzzy logic: Technical application in coal power plant
  21. LASER in ophthalmology .
  22. Finger print phenomenon of biometrics for security of vital places
Details for these topics will be given, if you contact me using the below box.


List of Colleges offering Diploma in Instrumentation and control Engineering in India

Hello Readers, i have collected a entire list of colleges in India offering diploma courses in instrumentation and control engineering. Now checkout the colleges near your area.

List of Colleges in Tamil Nadu

College name:A.D.J. Dharmambal Polytechnic College
University: Directorate of Technical Education, Chennai (DoTE Chennai)
Telephone Number:(04365)248161
City: Nagapattinam

University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number: N/A

University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number: N/A
City: Karaikudi

College name:Aries Polytechnic College
University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number:(044)-23633268

University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number:+ 91 - 0421 - 634994

University:Anna University Coimbatore
Telephone Number:+ 91 - 422 - 2573034, + 91 - 422 - 2574071

University: N/A
Telephone Number:044-2252 2013, 044-22542014

University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number:

University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number:

College name:Government Polytechnic College for Women
University:Directorate of Technical Education, Chennai (DoTE Chennai)
Telephone Number:0422 - 2240901, 0422 - 2240917

College name:GRG Polytechnic College
University:Bharathiar University
Telephone Number:0422-2654323, 0422-2654498

College name:Gudiyattam Polytechnic College
University:Directorate of Technical Education, Chennai (DoTE Chennai)
Telephone Number:04171 - 223385, 04171 - 223386
City: Vellore

College name:Nachimuthu Polytechnic College
University:Directorate of Technical Education, Chennai (DoTE Chennai)
Telephone Number:04259 - 236030 / 236040, 04259 - 236050

College name:Periyar Centenary Polytechnic College
University:Directorate of Technical Education, Chennai (DoTE Chennai)
Telephone Number:04362 - 264510, 04362 - 264517

College name:Sakthi Polytechnic College
University: Visit site
Telephone Number:04256-46254

University:Barathidasan University
Telephone Number:04339-262271, 04339-263197

College name:Suguna Polytechnic College
University:Tamil Nadu Open University
Telephone Number:04222627503
City: Coimbatore

College name:The Seshasayee Institute of Technology
University:Anna University Chennai
Telephone Number:0431-2411211

College name:V.L.B. Janaki Ammal Polytechnic College
University:Directorate of Technical Education, Chennai (DoTE Chennai)
Telephone Number:0422 - 2607552, 0422 - 2607652

College in Delhi

College name:Ambedkar Polytechnic
University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number:22428339

Colleges in Uttarpradesh

College name:Bakhshi Polytechnic
University:Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:91-5454-242159, 91-9918148477

College name:Government Girls Polytechnic
University:Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:

College name:Government Polytechnic
University:Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:

College name:Government Polytechnic
University:Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:0512 - 2580086

College name:Government Polytechnic
University:Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:0595-2351968

College name:Government Polytechnic
University:Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:05672 - 234428

Colleges in Maharastra

College name:Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University
University:Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University
Telephone Number:275142,275 103

College name:Bharati Vidyapeeth's Institute of Technology (Polytechnic)
University:Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education
Telephone Number:+91-022-27572434, +91-022-27579084
City:Navi Mumbai

College in Kerala

College name: Gov Polytechnic College Pala
University:Department of Technical Education & Board of Technical Examinations
Telephone Number:04822-200802

College in West Bengal

College name:Nazrul Centenary Polytechnic
University:West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT)
Telephone Number:0341-2532829

College in Jammu & Kashmir

College name:Regional Polytechnic
Telephone Number:0191-432500, 554632

College in Punjab

College name:Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology
University:Punjab Technical University
Telephone Number: 01672-280072, 284782, 284815, 284816 , 01672-280072 , 280057,280059

College in Orissa

College name:Seemanta Engineering College
University:Biju Patnaik University of Technology
Telephone Number:06791-222300, 222113, 222114, 222115 , 06791-222304

College name:Synergy Institute of Technology
University:Biju Patnaik University of Technology
Telephone Number:+91-671-2356150, +91-671-2356151

If you want any information about the college please use the contact form below.


Colleges Offering B.E Instrumentation and Control Engineering in India

Hello friends, This post is for students searching for colleges offering instrumentation and control engineering B.E course in India. I have list the college names and the university to which the college is affiliated to and location of the college.

Colleges in Delhi

College Name : Amity School of Engineering & Technology
University: Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
State : Delhi
City : Nazafgarh
Contact Number: 011-28062106,28061487

College Name : Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology
University : University of Delhi
State : Delhi
City : New Delhi
Contact number: 011-25099050

Colleges in Assam

College Name : Assam Engineering College
University : Gauhati University
State : Assam
City : Guwahati
Contact number: +91-361-2570550

College Name : Jorhat Engineering College
University : Dibrugarh University
State : Assam
City : Jorhat
Contact number:913762330134

Colleges in Haryana

College Name : B.M. Institute of Engineering & Technology
University : Guru Jambeshwar University
State :Haryana
City : Sonepat
Contact number:01302230563, 2233662

Colleges offering Instrumentation and control engineering in Punjab

College Name : Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology
University : Punjab Technical University
State : Punjab
City : Sangrur
Contact number: 01672-280072, 284782

Colleges in Gujarat

College Name : Atmiya Group of Institutions
University : Gujarat State Technical Examinations Board
State : Gujarat
City : Rajkot
Contact number: 080-4169 7855

College Name : Government Engineering College
University : Gujarat Technological University
State : Gujarat
City : Gandhinagar
Contact number: 079-23253546, +91-79-23215167

College Name : Government Engineering College
University : Saurashtra University
State : Gujarat
City : Rajkot
Contact number: 0281-2924062

College Name : L.D. College Of Engineering
University : Gujarat Technological University
State :Gujarat
City : Ahmedabad
Contact number:91(79) 26302887, +91-79-26306752

College Name : Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology
University : Veer Narmad South Gujarat University.
State : Gujarat
City : Surat
Contact number: 91-0261-2240146, 91-0261-2240147

College Name : Shantilal Shah Engineering College
University : Bhavnagar University
State :Gujarat
City : Bhavnagar
Contact number: 91-0261-2445767, 2445509

College Name : Vishwakarma Government Engineering College
University : Gujarat University
State :Gujarat
City : Gandhinagar
Contact number: (079) 23293866, 23293006

Colleges in Madhya Pradesh

College Name : Medicaps Institute of Technology & Management
University : Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya(Technical University)
State : Madhya Pradesh
City : Indore
Contact number: 0731-4020492, 07312856294

College Name : Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology & Science
University : Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya(Technical University)
State :Madhya Pradesh
City : Indore
Contact number:07321 - 224374, 0731-2349112, 0731-2349113

Colleges offering B.E Instrumentation and control engineering Course in Maharastra

College Name : DY Patil College Of Engineering
University : University of Pune
State :Maharashtra
City : Pune
Contact number: 020- 7653054, 020-7653058

College Name : Gangamai College of Engineering
University : North Maharashtra University
State :Maharashtra
City : Dhule
Contact number:+912562288170

College Name : N.D.M.V.P. Samaj's College of Engineering (NDMVPCOE)
University : University of Pune
State :Maharashtra
City : Nashik
Contact number:0253 - 2571439, 2582891, (0253)(O)2582823

College Name : Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of Technology Budhgaon
University : University of Pune
State :Maharashtra
City : Sangli
Contact number: +91-233- 364245, +91-0233: 2366345, 2366317

College Name : Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology
University : University of Pune
State :Maharashtra
City : Pune
Contact number: 020-27421095 / 96 / 97

Updated : 28/7/11
College Name : Pravara Rural College of Engineering Loni
University : University of Pune
State : Maharashtra
City : Loni, Ahmednagar
Contact number:+91- 2422-273700, +91- 2422-273527

College Name : Vidyavardhini's College of Engineering and Technology
University : University of Mumbai(Bombay)
State :Maharashtra
City : Thane
Contact number:+91- 251 - 2338234 Ext 115 , 2339486

College Name : Watumull Institute of Electronics Engineering & Computer Technology
University : University of Mumbai(Bombay)
State :Maharashtra
City : mumbai
Contact number:(022) 24971506

Colleges in Karnataka

College Name : B M Sreenivasaih College OF Engineering
University : Visvesvaraya Technological University
State : Karnataka
City : Bangalore
Contact number: 080-26622130, 26614357

College Name : Siddaganga Institute of Technology
University : Visvesvaraya Technological University
State :Karnataka
City : Tumkur
Contact number: 0816-2092000

Colleges offering B.E Instrumentation and control engineering Course in Andhra Pradesh

College Name : Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology
University : Osmania University
State : Andhra Pradesh
City : Hyderabad
Contact number:+91-40-23357195, 040-23352084 , +91-40-23351986, 040-23350605

College Name : Viswanadha Institute of Technology and Management
University : Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad
State : Andhra Pradesh
City : Visakhapatnam
Contact number:08933-220587, 91 0891 2539007

Colleges in Tamil nadu

College Name : Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Tiruvannamalai
Contact number:04182-247226, 247518

College Name : Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Coimbatore
Contact number: +(91)-(4259)-236030, 236040, 236050 , +(91)-(4259)-236070

College Name : Indira Gandhi College Of Engineering & Technology For Women
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Kancheepuram
Contact number: 044 – 26531612, 27493423

College Name : Jayamatha Engineering College
University : Anna University
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Kanyakumari
Contact number: 04652-363440

College Name : Kongu Engineering College
University : Anna University Coimbatore
State : Tamil Nadu
City : Erode
Contact number:04294 - 220583, 04294 - 220562, 220171,226515

College Name : Maharaja Prithvi Engineering College
University : Anna University Chennai
State : Tamil Nadu
City : Coimbatore
Contact number:2272626 , 2270006

College Name : R.V.S. College of Engineering and Technology
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Dindigul
Contact number:04551-227229, 04551-227230

College Name : Saranathan College of Engineering
University : Anna University Chennai
State : Tamil Nadu
City : Trichy
Contact number: 0431-2473682,2473284, 2473686

College Name : Sethu Institute of Technology
University : Anna University Tirunelveli
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Madurai
Contact number: 04566-255004, 04566 - 308001 , 04566-329971

College Name : Sri Sairam Engineering College
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Chennai
Contact number:044-22380031, 044- 2251 2220 / 2251 2221 / 2251 2222 / 2223

College Name : Sri Sairam Institute of Technology
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Chennai
Contact number:+91 44 2251 2111, +91 44 2251 2333

College Name : St. Joseph's College of Engineering
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Chennai
Contact number: 044 - 2450 0782, 2450 0765, 044-2450 0792, 044-24501060

College Name : St. Joseph's College of Engineering & Technology
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Thanjavur
Contact number:04362 282465

College Name : Thangavelu Group of Colleges
University : Anna University Chennai
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Chennai
Contact number:044 - 2450 1408, 2450 1409

College Name : Vivekanandha College of Engineering For Women
University : Anna University Coimbatore
State :Tamil Nadu
City : Tiruchengode
Contact number: +91-4288-234561, +91-4288-234562

This post will be regularly updated, so please stay tuned.


Ratio Control System

Ratio control system is a technique where in variable is manipulated to keep it as a ratio proportional to another ratio control system is a special type feed forward control system widely used in the process industries. The objective of ratio control system is to maintain the ratio of two variables at a specified value.


In this figure the ratio control system consists of the flow transmitter which senses the flow rate of the first pipe and second flow control. The flow controller controls the flow of the second pipe with respect to the flow in the first pipe.

Example of ratio control system

example of ratio control system

A common example is when the ratio of two reactants must be controlled is shown in the figure. One of the flow rates is measured but allowed to float, that is , not regulated. The outer flow rate is both measured and adjusted. The outer flow rate is both measured and adjusted to provide the specified control ratio. The flow rate of reactant A is measured and added with appropriate scaling, to the measurement of flow rate B. the controller reacts to the resulting input signal by adjustment of the control valve in the reactant B input line.

Application of ratio control system:

Blending operations
For holding the fuel-air ratio of reactants of the optimum.
Maintaining a stoichiometric ratio of reactance of a reactor.
Keeping a specified reflux ratio for a distillation column etc.


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