Electromechanical Relays

As the name indicates, electromechanical relays use the principle of inter conversion between electrical and mechanical energies. The most common type of electromechanical relay is the induction coil.

Basic operation of an electromechanical relay:

  1. The relay used should activate the circuit breaker when an over current occurs, thereby the circuit breaker disconnects the current flow and prevent the circuit components from damages.
  2. Usually a current transformer is used and current flows through its secondary only when over current flows.
  3. The current across the secondary of the transformer energizes the relay coil which in turn breaks the circuit connection in the circuit breaker.
  4. Thus further damages are prevented.

In the case of induction relays, there may be one or more exciting coils wound around a magnetic core. Due to flow of current in the exciting coil, the electromagnetic torque is produced which rotates the rotor.

This rotation of rotor is translated into mechanical action for closing of relay.

Types of induction relay:

  1. Induction disk relays
  2. Induction cup relays
  3. Hinged armature relays

Disadvantages of Electromechanical relays
Electromechanical relays are widely used for various applications but they suffer the following drawbacks:

  1. High burden on instrument transformers
  2. High operating time due to high inertia
  3. Contact pitting and corrosion
  4. Contact Racing: The Phenomenon by which the inertia of the moving parts causes unwanted connections in the circuit, which makes relay co-ordination difficult.
  5. Requires frequent maintenance as there are several moving parts.
  6. It is easily affected by shocks and vibrations from outside


Wireless based Instrumentation Projects (NON IEEE)


Objective of the project is to control the dish antenna position according to the mouse movement through zigbee transmission with help of microcontroller.

In current process dish antenna is controlled manually by men or some wired remote. It’s difficult to change the position of the dish in a short time. So this project overcomes this problem.


Objective of the project is to monitor the health of the building through zigbee transmission with help of microcontroller.

Nowadays there are so many buildings are become weak due to high temperature and increase of moist level. To avoid these kinds of problem we need to notice the building’s temperature and moisture status. In order to do that microcontroller is placed inside the wall of the building with sensors and zigbee. Through zigbee communication we can monitor the temperature, vibration and moist of the building from pc itself.


The objective of this project is to track the location using GPS receiver for the police patrol.

In the last decade the number of deaths and fatal injuries from traffic accidents has been increasing rapidly. So, to avoid this, automatically transmit GPS (Global Positioning System) location to the police station with in a second. They will find the exact location by latitude and longitude values. The alarm will ON with the help of driver circuit when accident place reaches.


The objective of this project is to monitor the river water level using the flow sensors and display on the LCD Display.

This paper evaluates an automated water level monitoring network. This network contains multiple nodes on which measuring modules are installed. These modules collect raw data and transmit them periodically to a central monitoring system.
This monitoring system monitors and processes the raw data and extracts information. Based on this information, various approximations are made such as water level rise rate, time remaining to exceed the critical level etc. The whole network is implemented as a prototype.


The objective of this project is to track location of the pilgrims using zigbee and monitoring in pc with the help of google map.

In last decades if someone lost their path, it is so difficult to find their location but, by using this technique easily find their paths and rescue is very easy buy tracking GPS location.
We can track not only pilgrims path can also track anyone who having GPS receiver with them. GPS will provide latitude and longitude value, we can get the exact position by plotting these latitude and longitude in google map.


The objective of this project is to monitor the temperature, PH and moister.

In this project we are continuously monitor the temperature, PH and moister by the help of temperature sensor, PH sensor and moister senor. These values are continuously received to the PC. In we can monitor these parameters.


The main objective of this project is to monitor the flood using flow sensor. Flow sensor is used to measure the flow rate of the water.

It is one of the best methods to identify the flood. This project consists of two flow sensor at different places, and to monitor the flow rate of water. If the flow rate is increased above the set rate in the two locations, the alarm will indicate and inform that flood.


The objective of this project is to control the appliances through touch screen and ZIGBEE.

In this project we are controlling the home appliances with the help of touch screen and ZIGBEE. The different places in touch screen produce different values. These values will transmit through ZIBEE. In the receiver side ZIGBEE receives and controls the relay.


The objective of this project is to design the electronic notice board using the LCD and the wireless communication.

Now a day’s college and school are using various type of method to convey the message to the student. In this project we convey the message to easily. We are display the data in LCD display. Project consists of two ZIGBEE receiver and two microcontrollers. The LCD display will display while the received data consist of specified symbol or character.


The objective of this project is to control the home appliances through Bluetooth technology. 

In this project we are controlling the home appliances with the help of Bluetooth. One part of Bluetooth device is connected with PC. Another part is connected with controller. The commands sends from the PC is transmitted through Bluetooth device. After receiving the commands in the receiver Bluetooth, the commands are given to the microcontroller. According to the commands the home appliances will control by the help of relay.

More projects and posts coming soon.



Basic Principle of Interferometer

Interferometer is a precise instrument for flow visualization. The variation of refractive index of the flowing gas with density is the basic principle used in thses system. The principle of interference of light waves is used. At a phase angle, the number of fringes are in relation to change in density with respect to the zero fringe condition.

Description of Interferometer

The arrangement consists of the following:
  1. Two windows to form a test section
  2. A light source
  3. Two Lenses L1 and L2
  4. Two beam splitters B1 and B2
  5. Two mirrors M1 and M2
  6. A display Screen.

Operation of Interferometer

  1. Light rays from a source are collimated with a lens L1. That is, the light rays become a parallel beam of rays when they come out of the lens L1.
  2. This collimated light rays are then split by a beam splitter B1. The two beams traverse at right angles to each other.
  3. That is the beam splitter B1 makes half of the light to go to mirrir M1. The remaining half is reflected towards mirror M2.
  4. Beam 1 is made to pass through the test section (to experience the flow filed) and beam 2 travels an alternate path, but of equal length.
  5. The two beams are agin brought together with the help of beam splitter S2 and are then focused onto the display screen.
  6. Because of the variation in the refractive properties of the flowing gas in the test section, beams-1 will have a travel path of different optical length when compared to that of beam 2. Beacuase of this, the two beams will be out of phase and will interface when they are joined together at B2. This causes alternate bright and dark regions called fringes on the display screen.
  7. The number of fringes will be a function of the difference in the optical length of the two beams. That is, for a difference in the path lengths of one wavelength, one fringe will appear. For a difference in the path lengths teo wave lengths, two fringes will appear and so on.
  8. It is to be noted that if medium I the test section has the same optical properties as that of the medium experience by beam 2, no fringe shifts will appear.
  9. Thus by observing ( and photographing) the interference effects, direct measurement of density variations of the flow in the test section can be obtained/ visualized.
  10. The only disadvantage in yusing this instrument is that it is difficult to align the setup to get beams that have travel paths of the same optical lengths.


Laser Doppler anemometer

Doppler Effect is a method for measuring linear velocity. When a narrow laser beam ( or radio beam or ultrasonic beam) is focused on an abject, the beam will be reflected back to the source. But if the object is moving, the frequency of the signal received back will differ from that of the transmitted signal. This difference in frequency (Doppler shift) becomes a measure of the velocity of the object .

LDA is used to measure flow (especially, high frequency turbulence fluctuations). This device can measure velocity of flow precisely and they don’t disturb the flow during the measurement process.

Description of Laser Doppler anemometer

The main parts of this device are as follows

  1. A laser source (an argon laser or He-Ne laser).
  2. A beam splitter that splits the laser beam into two equal intensity beams.
  3. Alens to focus the two split lazer beams at an intersection point.
  4. A photomultiplier tube (PMT)

For a flow whose velocity is to be determine, it is to be noyted that the flow should contain small particles to scatter the light. The particle concentration should be very small.

Operation of Laser Doppler anemometer

  1. The laser source sends a beam that is split by a beam splitter into two beams.
  2. The two parallel beams are focused by the lens L1 such that they intersect at a point in the test section were flow ( with particles ) exists. In the region of intersection, interference fringes are formed.
  3. The particles (carried along with the flow) that pass through the intersection of the beams scatter the light from both the beams.
  4. The scattered light experiences a Doppler shift in frequency that is directly proportional to the flow velocity.
  5. The light is collected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The device is constructed such that the direct and scattered beams travel in the same optical path so that an interference will be observed at the PMT that is proportional to frequency shift. This shift then gives an indication of flow velocity.
  6. A signal processor is used to retrieve velocity data from the PMT.

Advantages of Laser Doppler anemometer

  1. The device does not disturb the flow during measurement
  2. The device measure velocity directly
  3. Volume of sensing part can be very small
  4. Highly accurate
  5. Can be used to measure flow of both gases and liquids.

Disadvantages of Laser Doppler anemometer

  1. Requires transparent channels
  2. Cannot be-used on clean flows

Applications of Laser Doppler anemometer

  1. Wind tunnel studies
  2. Blood flow measurement
  3. Sensing of wind velocity
  4. Used in the field of combustion


Strain Gauge Accelerometer

Basic Principle of Strain Gauge Accelerometer

When a cantilever beam qattached with a mass at its free end is subjected to vibration, vibrational displacement of the mass takes place. Depending on the deisplacement of the mass, the beam deflects and hence the beam is strained. The resulting strain is proportional to the vibration displacement of the mass and hence the vibration/acceleration being measured when calibrated.

Description of Strain Gauge Accelerometer

The main parts of a strain gague accelerometer are as follows:
  • A cantilever beam fixed to the housing of the instrument.
  • A mass is fixed to the free end of the cantilever beam.
  • Two bounded strain gauges are mounted on the cantilever beam as shown in diagram.
  • Damping is provided by a viscous fluid filled inside the housing.

Operation of Strain Gauge Accelerometer

  • The accelerometer is fitted on to the structure whose acceleration is to be measured.
  • Due to the vibration, vibrational displacement of the mass occurs, causing the cantilever beam to be strained.
  • Hence the strain gauges mounted on the cantilever beam are also strained and due to this their resistance change.
  • Hence a measure of this change in resistance of the strain gauge becomes a measure of the extent to which the cantilever beam is strained.
  • But the resulting strain of the cantilever beam is proportional to the vibration/acceleration and hence a measure of the change in resistance of the strain gauges becomes a measure of vibration/acceleration.
  • The leads of the strain gauges are connected to a wheat stone bridge whose output is calibrated in terms of vibration/acceleration.



A device used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. The saybolt viscometer controls the heat of the fluid and the viscosity is the time is takes the fluid to fill a 60cc container.

Efflux cup viscometers are most commonly used for fieldwork to measure the viscosity of oils, syrups, varnish, paints and Bitumen emulsions. The testing procedure is quite similar to the capillary-tube viscometers where efflux time of a specified volume of fluid is measured through fixed orifice at the bottom of a cup to represent the viscosity of the fluid. Since the viscosity of Newtonian liquid are independent of dimensions of viscometer used, it is possible to convert the efflux times to kinematic viscosities by conversion charts or by formulas suggested by the equipment manufacturers.

To obtain high accuracy the liquid holding vessel and orifice are temperature controlled by immersing them in a thermostatically controlled bath. The saybolt viscometer, one of the efflux cup viscometers is the standard instrument for testing petroleum products. There are three types of orifices available-Universal, Furol, Asphalt.

The furol and asphalt orifices, respectively, have an efflux time of approximately, one-tenth and one-hundredth that of the universal orifice. The cup orifice combination should be selected to provide an effllux time within the range of 20 to 100 seconds. Of these types, the universal orifice(saybolt universal viscometer) is most commonly used and its efflux time is designated as saybolt universal seconds(SUS).The universal viscometer measures the time required for 60 cc of sample fluid to flow out through an orifice having dimensions of 0.176 cm in diameter and 1.225 cm in length. Saybolt universal seconds (t) can be converted to kinematic viscosity (v) by the following equations:

When t < 100 secs, v = 0.226t - 195/t Centistokes
When t >100 secs, v = 0.220t - 135/t Centistokes

The viscosity determinations should be conducted in a room free from drafts and rapid changes in temperature the highest degree of accuracy.


Lead Control Systems Engineer Wanted in london

Location:London, UNITED KINGDOM
Advert Published:12 Aug 2012
Expiry date:11 Sep 2012
Talascend Ref. No.:55623
OilCareers Ref. No.:J796583

Apply here : http://www.oilcareers.com/content/jobsearch/job_advert.asp?jobadid=796583

Position Duties/Responsibilities:

· The Chief Engineer of Control Systems shall assign a Lead Engineer to a project.
The Lead Engineer shall have extended experience in the Oil, Gas and Chemical (OG&C) contracting industry with experience in lead positions managing a team of at least 15 engineers. In addition, the Lead Engineer shall have hands-on experience of project execution through a variety of phases including conceptual design, feasibility studies, front-end design, detailed engineering design and procurement of instrumentation and control systems equipment.

· The Lead Engineer shall report to the Project Engineering Manager assigned to the project and functionally to the discipline Chief Control Systems Engineer.

· The Lead Engineer shall be responsible for planning, organizing, monitoring, reporting, coordinating and controlling the control system scope of work for the assigned project within agreed man-hour budget, schedule and quality standards.

· The Lead Engineer shall interface with the Client representatives to ensure all customer expectations are met.

· The Lead Engineer shall ensure that the project scope is fully understood by self and communicated to all team members.

· The Lead Engineer is responsible for completing staff employee annual performance appraisals and for coaching and developing control systems staff to professional status where required.

· The Lead Engineer may be required to assist the Chief Control Systems Engineer with input to proposals, corporate workshop activities, developing standards, developing technical work practices, interviewing control systems engineers including graduates, developing execution strategies and performing technical audits.

· Commercial awareness and leadership skills are important attributes of a good Lead Engineer.

· The Lead Engineer shall be a team player, goal oriented in so far as the production of deliverables and achievement of milestones as well as taking ownership of tasks and the responsibility for their outcome.

· He or she will also be an effective administrator and a good communicator.

· The Lead Engineer must be familiar with European and American Standards and their application as well as industry trends and their likely impacts.

Required Qualifications and Position Skills

. Masters or Honours degree in Control Systems, Electrical, Electronic or Mechanical Engineering

. Professional Engineer (Chartered Engineer, Fellow or equivalent)

. Proficient user of office automation packages such as Microsoft Word, Excel, Power Point and Access

. SPI user for the preparation of instrument indices and datasheets – rather than being a proficient hands-on user Lead Engineer should understand how SPI is used

. Document Management, Scheduling, Material Requisition Tool

Additional requirements:

Candidates must be prepared for international travel on business trips and or project assignments to site.


Electrical Torsion Meter (Torque Measurement using slotted Discs)

Basic principle

Due to the applied torque, there is a relative displacement between the two slotted discs. Due to this relative displacement of the slotted discs, a phase shift exists between the pulse generated by the transducers. When these pulses are connected to an electronic unit, it will show a time lapse between the two pulses. This time lapse between the two pulses is proportional to the twist of the shaft and the torque of the shaft.

Description of Electrical Torsion Meter

  1. The main parts of an electrical torsion meter are as follows:
  2. A shaft connected between a driving engine and a driven load.
  3. Two slotted discs attached on either side of the shaft.
  4. Transducer (magnetic or photo electric ) to count pulses from the slotted disc.

Operation of Electrical Torsion Meter

  1. The teeth produce voltage pulses in the transducers.
  2. When torque is not applied on the shaft, the teeth of the bth the discs perfectly align with each other and hence he voltage pulses produced in the transducers will have zero time difference.
  3. But when torque is applied on the shaft, there is a relative displacement of the slotted discs due to twist experienced by the shaft and hence the teeth of both the discs will not align with each other and hence the voltage pulses produced in the transducer will have a time difference (that is , time lapse).
  4. This time lapse between the pulses of the two discs is proportional to the twist of the shaft and hence the torque of the shaft.
  5. A measure of this time lapse becames of torque when calibrated.

Application of Electrical Torsion Meter

  1. Used to measure torque on rotation shafts.

Advantages of Electrical Torsion Meter

  1. There are no signal leakage problems.
  2. There is no noise creation.


Seismic – Displacement Sensing Accelerometer

Basic Principle

When a spring – mass – damper system is subjected to acceleration, the mass is displaced, and this displacement of the mass is proportional to the acceleration. Hence a measure of displacement of the mass becomes a measure of acceleration.


The main parts of a seismic accelerometer are as follows:
  1. A seismic mass is suspended from the housing of the accelerometer through a spring.
  2. A damper is connected between the seismic mass and the housing of the accelerometer.
  3. The seismic mass is connected to an electric displacement transducer.

Note: there are two types of seismic – displacement sensing accelerometers namely.
  1. Linear seisimic accelerometer.
  2. Rotational Seismic Accelerometer.
Both of the above mentioned seismic accelerometers work on the same principle and are shown in diagram.


  1. The accelerometer is fitted on to the structure whose acceleration is to be measured.
  2. Due the acceleration, the seismic mass experience a displacement and this displacement of the mass is proportional to the acceleration.
  3. As the mass is connected to an electric displacement transducer, the output of the transducer depends on the extent – to which the mass is displaced.
  4. Hence the output of the transducer is calibrated to give a direct indication of the acceleration characteristics of the structure.


What is a Magnetic Tape Recorders

Before explaining about magnetic tape recorders, I will tell you what a recorder is and what the uses of the recorder are?

A recorder is used to produce a permanent record of the signal that is measured.

A record is used to analyse how one variable varies with respect to another and how the signal saries with time.

The objective of a recording system is to record and preserve information pertaining to measurement at a particular time and also to get an idea of the performance of the unit and to provide the results of the steps taken by the operator.

The basic components of a general recorder are an operating mechanism to position the pen or writer on the paper and a paper mechanism for paper movement and a printing mechanism.

Okay, now you know what is a recorder, why it is used and where it is used. Now I will explain about magnetic tape recorder.

A magnetic tape recorder is used to record data which can be retrieved and reproduced in electrical form again. This recorder can record signals of high frequency.

Description of Magnetic Tape Recorders:

The magnetic tape is made of a thin sheet of tough plastic material; one side of it is coated with a magnetic material (iron oxide). The plastic base is usually polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polyethylene terephthalate. Recording head, reproducing head and tape transport mechanism are also present.
magnetic tape recorders

Operation of Magnetic Tape Recorders:

  1. The recording head consists of core, coil and a fine air gap of about 10 micrometer. The coil current creates a flux, which passes through the air gap to the magnetic tape and magnetizes the iron oxide particles as they pass the air gap. So the actual recording takes place at the trailing edge of the gap.
  2. The reproducing head is similar to that of a recording head in appearance. The magnetic tape is passes over a reproducing head, thereby resulting in an output voltage proportional to the magnetic flux in the tape, across the coil of the reproducing head. Thus the magnetic pattern in the tape is detected and converted back into original electrical signal.
  3. The tape transport mechanism moves the tape below the head at constant speed without any strain, distrortion or wear. The mechanism much be such as to guide the tape passed by the magnetic heads with great precision, maintain propoer tension and have sufficient tape to magnetic head contact.

Advantages of Magnetic Tape Recorders:

  1. Wide frequency range.
  2. Low distortion.
  3. Immediate availability of the signal in its initial electrical form as no time is lost in processing.
  4. The possibility of erase and reuse of the tape.
  5. Possibility of playing back or reproducing of the recorded signal as many times as required without loss if signal.

Applications of Magnetic Tape Recorders:

  1. Data recording and analysis on missiles, aircraft and satelites.
  2. Communications and spying.
  3. Recording of stress, vibration and analysis of noise.


D’Arsonval Movement (Electrical Analog Meter)

The main aim of a measuring system is to presnt the data in an understandable manner to the user / observer. The data presentation device is called as an output device or terminating device.

The D’Arsonval movement is a current sensing mechanism which is used in DC Ammeter, ohm meter and Voltmeter.

Priniciple of D’Arsonval Movement

When an electric current is passed through a coil placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a force. This force causes a torque in the coil that is fixed to a spindle. The spindle can rotate in fixed bearings.
The rotation of the spindle is proportional to the electric current passed through the coil. This torque that is produced is balanced after a movement against the restoring torques of springs. The torque that is produced that tends to rotate the spindle is termed as D’Arsonval Movement.

Description of D’Arsonval Movement

  1. The arrangement consists of a coil which is wound over an iron core (spindle).
  2. This spindle is place between the two poles of a horse shoe magnet.
  3. The spindle is attached at its end to bearings. Sprial and torsional springs are provided for restrotation of the system when the extraction is removed.
  4. A pointer is attached to the spindle that can sweep over the calibrated scale.

Operation of D’Arsonval Movement

  1. When a current is passed through the coil, it produces a force. Due to this force, a torque is produced in the spindle which rotates it.
  2. When the spindle rotates, it moves a pointer making it sweep over the calibrated scale.
  3. The spring produce a restoring torque. When this restoring torque becomes equal to the excitation torque, the pointer comes to rest.
  4. The rotational movement of the spindle is proportional to the supply (D.C) Current.


Instrumentation Jobs in India

Hello Friends,

Camino Asia Pte.Ltd is hiring for Instrumentation engineering with qualifications for Diploma to B.Tech.
  1. Work as originator on I& C deliverables, specification, data sheets.
  2. Coordinate with other discipline for interface issues.
  3. Inform team leader / supervisor about issues requiring his attention.
  4. Instrumentation Index Specvification
  5. Sizing Calculation
  6. JB wiring diagram, Cable Block Diagram, Cable Schedule
  7. I & C MTO
  8. Support to SP Inst. activity on project.
Status: Staff
Required Skills/Experience: Diploma / BE / B Tech - Instrumentation
Location: Gurgaon, INDIA
Onshore: Yes
Offshore: Yes
Advert Published: 30 Apr 2012
Expiry date: 29 Jun 2012
OilCareers Ref. No.: J718037
Work Permit Requirements:  INDIA

Apply using the below link:


Important Instrumentation Interview Questions

This post is on behalf of gunjan(guest) who asked a question “can anyone suggest me some good interview question for my coming interview”.

Mr.Gunjan most of the HR peoples who come for interviewing will first raise a question to you like this “ which is your favorite subject in instrumentation ? Or he will simply ask you, I don’t know about your course can you brief me about instrumentation?” and based on your answer he or she will ask most of questions from your favorite subject only. So make sure you will be telling a subject what you know best.

And some people will simply prepare a list of question and they will ask you to answer it, don’t worry. I have answer collected a list of Instrumentation Interview questions that you have to know,

1. What is Instrumentation Engineering and what it is about?
Looks like a simple question but if you answer with simple English, your hr will use your answer to judge your subject knowledge.
2. What is a process variable, set-point, Zero error?
If your HR is from company like ESSAR steels where process control instrumentation is used, he will sure ask this question
3. What are the devices used to measure pressure?

4. What is the need for used 4-20mA signal and why is 0-10V signal not used?
A very famous question asked by experienced HRs
5. Different Types of Control systems?

6. Difference between PLC and DCS.

7. Classification of Feedback Control system.

8. What are the three Laws of Thermocouples?
He or she will expect that you will atleast tell the names of the laws.
9. Which is best flow meter to measure the flow of fluids?
This is an application oriented question, if the fluid is a mixture of water and flour what is the flow meter that you will suggest.
You can share your answer to the questions using the below comments form. After a week, I will update this post with your best correct answers.


Instrumentation Fresh project ideas

I have collected a list of Instrumentation based Analog Projects (non-ieee) for the final year students.

  1. Automatic Speed Controller for Fans and Coolers
  2. Wireless Mobile phone charger
  3. Brake failure Indicator
  4. Moisture Control system
  5. Remote controlled Fan Regulator
  6. Wireless electric power transmitter
  7. Laser Torch Based Voice Transmitter and Receiver
  8. Antisleep Alarm with power saver for students
  9. Drinking water alarm
  10. Seismic Sensor
  11. Water purifier using reverse osmosis
  12. Power Generation using mini-windmill

 If you need abstract for the above topics, use the comments box to request.


Instrumentation Assistant Engineers Wanted

Hello readers, if you have just passed out and searching for a job related to instrumentation engineering and willing to work abroad, this post is for you.

Ably Resources are currently seeking an electrical or instrument assistant engineer for a staff role in Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Status: Staff
Required Skills/Experience: Instumentation, Electrical
Desired Skills/Experience: Instumentation, Electrical
Minimum Experience: 0 years
Location: Aberdeen, UNITED KINGDOM
Advert Published: 26 Apr 2012
Expiry date: 3 May 2012
Ably Resources Ltd Ref. No.: IAM52454
OilCareers Ref. No.: J716123
Work Permit Requirements: EUROPEAN UNION
(Applications will only be considered from people who are authorised to work in this location by being a national of that country or region, or by holding a valid work permit.)

Use the following link to apply for job http://www.oilcareers.com/content/jobsearch/job_advert.asp?jobadid=716123


Job for an Instrumentation Engineer

Hello readers, this is post is for instrumentation and control engineers who have finished their course and searching a jobs. I will show you some of the best places to find instrumentation jobs in online.

Oil Careers
A best website to search jobs based on oil and gas sector, with more than 23 job categories you will be able to find a perfect job for your talent in your desired location. Register an account and upload your CV and select a perfect job.
Website: http://www.oilcareers.com/worldwide/

Info Oil Careers
A site which contains more than 18,000 jobs related to instrumentation and control with region and country refinements option for searching jobs. This site receives 1200 new jobs post each week from its recruiters.
Website: http://careers.infooil.com/

Automation Jobs
If you are searching for very specific jobs like R&D, supervision, Process Control and alike then this is site is best for you to start, because this site offer lots of filters not only job and regions but also for area of interest and expertise.
Website: http://automationjob.com/en/home

Times Jobs
Want a job in India as an Instrumentation engineer, use this site to search jobs because this site has got an option for searching jobs based on location in India.
Website : http://www.timesjobs.com/jobskill/instrumentation-Jobs

Norton Bowers
A very simple looking site but has much effective and good recruiters in it. Give it a try, you will sure find interesting job opportunities from all over the world. Upload your CV and see the jobs.
Website : http://www.nortonbowers.co.uk/candidates/register/

Misco Jobs
This company publishes majority of positions worldwide in Mining, Petroleum and Oil, Gas, Construction and Environmental industries. It Provides you 20 Versions of Resumes for better job. Best place to try jobs for a fresher.
Website : http://www.miscojobs.com/

I will update this post whenever i find a good instrumentation jobs site. Comment me below.


Moving coil Type Velocity Transducer

Basic Principle of Moving coil Type Velocity Transducer

  1. A coil moves in a magnetic field according to the velocity applied.
  2. The voltage in the coil becomes a measure of the velocity when calibrated.

Description of Moving coil Type Velocity Transducer

  1. The instrument has permanent pole pieces which generate the magnetic field.
  2. There is a pivoted arm on which a coil is mounted.
  3. There is a mass attached to the end of the coil.
  4. The whole device is contained in an antimagnetic case.

Operation of Moving coil Type Velocity Transducer

  1. The velocity to be measured is applied to the arm.
  2. Due to this coil moves in the magnetic field.
  3. A voltage is generated on account of motion of the coil in the magnetic field.
  4. The output voltage is proportional to the velocity.

Advantages of Moving coil Type Velocity Transducer

  1. The antimagnetic case reduces the effects of stray magnetic field.
  2. Damping is obtained electrically.
  3. There is high stability under varying temperature conditions.

Applications of Moving coil Type Velocity Transducer

These transducers are used for measuring velocities in linear, sinusoidal or random manner.


Moving magnet type velocity Transducer

Basic principle of Moving magnet type velocity Transducer
When a permanent magnet moves inside a coil, the change in the length of the air gap varies the reluctance. Hence the output voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change of the length of the air gap (change in length produced by velocity). Thus the output voltage becomes a measure of the velocity when calibrated.

Description of Moving magnet type velocity Transducer

    Moving magnet type velocity Transducer
  1. The sensing element which is a rod is a permanent magnet.
  2. The rod is rigidly coupled to the device whose velocity is being measured.
  3. There is a coil surrounding the permanent magnet.
  4. The permanent magnet is movable, that is, it can move in and out of the coil.

Operation of Moving magnet type velocity Transducer

  1. The instrument is fixed to the device whose velocity is to measured.
  2. Due to the application of the velocity, the permanent magnet moves in or out of the coil. Due to its motion, the length of the air gap varies.
  3. The output voltage also varies due to the motion of the magnet and the amplitude of the voltage is directly proportional to velocity.
  4. The polarity of the output voltages determines the direction of the velocity.

Advantages of Moving magnet type velocity Transducer

  1. Its maintenance is negligible.
  2. The output voltage is linearly proportional to velocity.
  3. Cost of manufacture is less.

Disadvantages of Moving magnet type velocity Transducer

  1. Performance is affected by stray magnetic fields and hence noise is caused.
  2. Frequency response is poor.
Used as a velocity transducer to convert velocity to measureable voltage.


Instruments used to measure angular velocity

Angular velocity is measured using devices called tachometers.Tachometers are instruments that measure angular speed by registering anyone of the following

Number of rotations during the contact period (or)

  • Number of rotations per minute (rpm)
  • Tachometers are classified as follows:

Mechanical Tachometers

  1. Revolution counter and timer
  2. Tachoscope
  3. Hand speed indicator
  4. Slipping clutch tachometer
  5. Centrifugal force tachometer
  6. Vibration reed tachometer

Electrical tachometers

  • Drag cup tachometer
  • Commutated capacitor tachometer
  • Tachogenerators
  • DC – Tachogeneraor
  • AC – Tachogeneraor

Contact Less Electrical Tachometers

  1. Inductive pick up tachometer
  2. Stroboscope tachometer
  3. Photoelectric tachometer
  4. Capacitor tachometer


Devices used to measure dimensions

This post contains a small list of devices used in measuring dimension. They are ,

  1. Steel rules
  2. Vernier calipers
  3. Micrometers
  4. Dial gauge indicator
  5. Gauge blocks
  6. Optical methods (Microscopes, telescopes and optical flats with a monochromatic source of light)
  7. Pneumatic comparators.


Pirani gauge – A Thermal conductivity Gauge

The Pirani Gauge is a type of Thermal Conductivity Gauges.

Basic principle of Pirani gauge

A conducting wire gets heated when electric current flows through it. The rate at which heat is dissipated from this wire depends on the conductivity of the surrounding media. The conductivity of the surrounding media inturn depends on the densisty of the surrounding media (that is, lower pressure of the surrounding media, lower will be its density). If the density of the surrounding media is low, its conductivity also will be low causing the wire to become hotter for a given current flow, and vice versa.

Description of Pirani gauge

Pirani gaugeThe main parts of the arrangement are:
  1. A pirani gauge chamber which encloses a platinum filament.
  2. A compensating cell to minimize variation caused due to ambient temperature changes.
  3. The pirani gauge chamber and the compensating cell is housed on a wheat stone bridge circuit as shown in diagram.

Operation of Pirani gauge

  1. A constant current is passed through the filament in the pirani gauge chamber. Due to this current, the filament gets heated and assumes a resistance which is measured using the bridge.
  2. Now the pressure to be measured (applied pressure) is connected to the pirani gauge chamber. Due to the applied pressure the density of the surrounding of the pirani gauge filament changes. Due to this change in density of the surrounding of the filament its conductivity changes causing the temperature of the filament to change.
  3. When the temperature of the filament changes, the resistance of the filament also changes.
  4. Now the change in resistance of the filament is determined using the bridge.
  5. This change in resistance of the pirani gauge filament becomes a measure of the applied pressure when calibrated.

Note: [higher pressure – higher density – higher conductivity – reduced filament temperature – less resistance of filament] and vice versa.

Applications of Pirani gauge

Used to measure low vacuum and ultra high vacuum pressures.

Advantages of Pirani gauge

  1. They are rugged and inexpensive
  2. Give accurate results
  3. Good response to pressure changes.
  4. Relation between pressure and resistance is linear for the range of use.
  5. Readings can be taken from a distance.

Limitations of Pirani gauge

  1. Pirani gauge must be checked frequently.
  2. Pirani gauge must be calibrated from different gases.
  3. Electric power is a must for its operation.


Hot Wire Anemometer (Thermal Method)

Basic Principle of Hot wire Anemometer

When an electrically heated wire is placed in a flowing gas stream, heat is transferred from the wire to the gas and hence the temperature of the wire reduces, and due to this, the resistance of the wire also changes. This change in resistance of the wire becomes a measure of flow rate.

Description of Hot wire Anemometer

The main parts of the arrangement are as follows:

  • Conducting wires placed in a ceramic body.
  • Leads are taken from the conducting wires and they are connected to one of the limbs of the wheat stone bridge to enable the measurement of change in resistance of the wire.

Operation of Hot wire Anemometer

There are two methods of measuring flow rate using a anemometer bridge combination namely:

  • Constant current method
  • Constant temperature method

Constant current method

  • The bridge arrangement along with the anemometer has been shown in diagram. The anemometer is kept in the flowing gas stream to measure flow rate.
  • A constant current is passed through the sensing wire. That is, the voltage across the bridge circuit is kept constant, that is, not varied.
  • Due to the gas flow, heat transfer takes place from the sensing wire to the flowing gas and hence the temperature of the sensing wire reduces causing a change in the resistance of the sensing wire. (this change in resistance becomes a measure of flow rate).
  • Due to this, the galvanometer which was initially at zero position deflects and this deflection of the galvanometer becomes a measure of flow rate of the gas when calibrated.

Constant temperature method

  • The bridge arrangement along with the anemometer has been shown in diagram. The anemometer is kept in the flowing gas stream to measure flow rate.
  • A current is initially passed through the wire.
  • Due to the gas flow, heat transfer takes place from the sensing wire to the flowing gas and this tends to change the temperature and hence the resistance of the wire.
  • The principle in this method is to maintain the temperature and resistance of the sensing wire at a constant level. Therefore, the current through the sensing wire is increased to bring the sensing wire to have its initial resistance and temperature.
  • The electrical current required in bringing back the resistance and hence the temperature eof the wire to its initial condition becomes a measure of flow rate of the gas when calibrated.

Application of Hot wire Anemometer

In research applications, they are extensively used to study varying flow conditions.


Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Project Ideas with Abstract

I have collected a few interesting project topics in Digital Signal Processing with abstracts for you. Read it and do your project.

digital signal processing project ideas


ABSTRACT The greatest challenge on monitoring characters from a monocular video scene is to track targets under occlusion conditions. In this work, we present a scheme to automatically track and count people in a surveillance system. First, a dynamic background subtraction module is employed to model light variation and then to determine pedestrian objects from a static scene. To identify foreground objects as characters, positions and sizes of foreground regions are treated as decision features. Moreover, the performance to track individuals is improved by using the modified overlap tracker, which investigates the centroid distance between neighboring objects to help on target tracking in occlusion states of merging and splitting. On the experiments of tracking and counting people in three video sequences, the results exhibit that the proposed scheme can improve the averaged detection ratio about 10% as compared to the conventional work.


Abstract – Based on Blackfin DSP, we design and implement a compact moving object detecting and video recording system. The background subtraction algorithm is applied to the system to detect the moving objects. And when there is any object being detected, the frames containing the moving objects will be recorded automatically. In order to improve the accuracy of the detecting results, in this paper, instead of using the median filter, we design the block filtering algorithm to filter the noise with the simply connected block region, since the block filtering algorithm needs far less amount of computation than the median filtering algorithm. Further, in order to improve the detecting speed, based on the memory configuration of the system, a new block based parallel data processing mechanism is proposed, in which the external memory data to be processed is moved into the internal memory space in advance that greatly reduces the external memory access requests of the DSP core, thus good parallel data processing and transmission is achieved. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the block filtering algorithm is more suitable for a real time system than the median filter, because the block filtering algorithm improves the filtering efficiency greatly by reducing the amount of filtering computation and also works with satisfying statistical accuracy. In addition, the results of the experiments also show that the block based parallel data processing mechanism is highly effective in improving detecting speed and contributes to a more efficient parallel detecting system.


Abstract—To solve the contradiction between the noisereducing effect and the time complexity of the standard median filter algorithm, the paper proposed an improved median filter algorithm combined with average filtering. According to the correlation of the image, the algorithm adaptively resizes the filter mask according to noise levels of the mask. According to the sorting results of the selected pixel values in the neighborhood, the algorithm uses the median to replace the original pixel. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can effectively reduce time complexity and has better noise-reducing effect than the standard median filter algorithm. It has a good application prospect in image processing.


Abstract: To better protect the security of information, this paper proposed an information transmission scheme which combined the cryptosystem and information hiding. The scheme pretreated the information firstly by making use of the RSA arithmetic which belongs to the public key cryptosystem, and then took advantage of the improved LSB which based on the Human Visual System to make the cryptograph hid in the 24 bits BMP image and transmitted it. The embedding and extracting process of secret information in the scheme were discussed in detail. Also, the result of information hiding achieved by this scheme was given. The principle of the scheme is simple, and it is easy to implement. The experimental result suggests that the scheme is efficient and has good practical value.


Abstract— For image compression, it is very necessary that the selection of transform should reduce the size of the resultant data as compared to the original data set .In this paper, a new lossless image compression method is proposed. For continuous and discrete time cases, wavelet transform and wavelet packet transform has emerged as popular techniques. While integer wavelet using the lifting scheme significantly reduces the computation time, we propose a completely new approach for further speeding up the computation. First, wavelet packet transform (WPT) and lifting scheme (LS) are described. Then an application of the LS to WPT is presented which leads to the generation of integer wavelet packet transform (IWPT). The proposed method, Integer Wavelet Packet Transform (IWPT) yields a representation which can be lossless, as it maps an integer valued sequence onto the integer valued coefficients. The idea of Wavelet Packet Tree is used to transform the still and color images. IWPT tree can be built by iterating the single wavelet decomposition step on both the low-pass and high-pass branches, with rounding off in order to achieve the integer transforms. Thus, the proposed method provides good compression ratio.


Abstract—In this paper, a color image fusion system based on DSP and FPGA is introduced .In the system, TMS320DM642 is used as the kernel processor to finish the images fusion arithmetic, storage and display. FPGA, which has the ability to control the logic of image capturing, is used as the assistive processor. The experiment shows that this technology can obtain color fusion image.


Abstract-The paper provides portable digital aerial image system based on Blackfin DSP. The system includes the aeromodellingcarrier part and the ground control part. The image transmission between the two parts realized with Nordic Semiconductors RF transceiver nRF24L01. The aeromodelling-carrier part takes pictures using CMOS image sensor and compresses data by ADSPBF531, then sends them to ground part wirelessly. The ground control center based on ADSP-BF533 supervises images real time and samples data. After relevant subsequent image processing and compressing, the final image is saved locally. In controllable range, the system can take pictures anyplace and any angle, can lock object neatly. This system features double DSP architecture so it can transmit and process image very fast. It is small, light, low power consumption and low cost. It is easy for single taking and operation, so has good application prospect in field reconnaissance, traffic surveillance, city layout and the situation of bad weather or a disaster and so on.


Abstract – Processing Real-Time image sequence is now possible because of advancement of technological developments in digital signal processing, wide-band communication, and high-performance VLSI. With the developments in video technology, the surveillance system can be built with some low cost gadget such as the web-camera. In this modern life with increasing number of crime rate, people in society need for security and safety; video surveillance has become important reason to oppose threats of crime and terrorism. The most fundamental part of surveillance is foreground detection, which is retrieval of an object of interest. The object of interest can remodel by common background subtraction technique. There is some problem arises by using this technique, where because of variation of light source, the background constantly changes. The intensity of pixel changes throughout the object detection takes place. Intensity of pixel value changes leads to improper foreground detection, the background detected as foreground object. This paper proposes a method to model and update the background of the scene by intersection solving method.


Abstract—Steganography has been proposed as a new alternative technique to enforce data security. Lately, novel and versatile audio steganographic methods have been proposed. A perfect audio Steganographic technique aim at embedding data in an imperceptible, robust and secure way and then extracting it by authorized people. Hence, up to date the main challenge in digital audio steganography is to obtain robust high capacity steganographic systems. Leaning towards designing a system that ensures high capacity or robustness and security of embedded data has led to great diversity in the existing steganographic techniques. In this paper, we present a current state of art literature in digital audio steganographic techniques. We explore their potentials and limitations to ensure secure communication. A comparison and an evaluation for the reviewed techniques is also presented in this paper.


Abstract—This paper presents an effective traffic surveillance system for detecting and tracking moving vehicles in nighttime traffic scenes. The proposed method identifies vehicles by detecting and locating vehicle headlights and taillights using image segmentation and pattern analysis techniques. First, a fast bright-object segmentation process based on automatic multilevel histogram thresholding is applied to effectively extract bright objects of interest. This automatic multilevel thresholding approach provides a robust and adaptable detection system that operates well under various nighttime illumination conditions. The extracted bright objects are then processed by a spatial clustering and tracking procedure that locates and analyzes the spatial and temporal features of vehicle light patterns, and identifies and classifies moving cars and motorbikes in traffic scenes. The proposed real-time vision system has also been implemented and evaluated on a TI DM642 DSP-based embedded platform. The system is set up on elevated platforms to perform traffic surveillance on real highways and urban roads. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed traffic surveillance approach is feasible and effective for vehicle detection and identification in various nighttime environments.

Share your ideas in the below comments section.


How to make a Piezoelectric Transducer

Hello Friends, in this post i wish to share a video i saw on YouTube today. Watch this video and make your own Piezoelectric Transducer.

If you need any help related to instrumentation and control engineering, use the comments section


Level measurement using Gauge Glass Technique:

A sight glass (also called a gauge glass) is used in the liquid level measurement. It is used for continuous indication of liquid level within a tank or vessel.

Construction and working of Gauge Glass Technique:

A sight glass instrument consists of a graduated tube of toughened glass which is connected to the interior of the tank at the bottom whose water level is to be measured. The image below shows a simple sight glass for an open tank in which the liquid level in the sight glass matches the level of liquid in the tank.

As the level of liquid in the tank rises and falls, the level in the sight glass also rises and falls accordingly. Thus by measuring the level in the sight glass, the level of liquid in the tank is measured.

When it is desired to measure a liquid level with the liquid under pressure or vacuum, the sight glass must be connected to the tank at the top as well as at the bottom, otherwise the pressure difference between the tank and the sight glass would cause false reading. In this case, the glass tube is enclosed in protective housing, and the two valves are provided for isolating the gauge from the tank in case of breakage of the sight glass. The smaller valve at the bottom is provided for blowing out the gauge for cleaning purpose.

Pressure balance is obtained at any points in the fluid which are at equal distances above or below some reference. If the liquids are subjected to the some external pressure and have the same specific gravity, the level will be the same in both vessels.
The image below shows a high pressure sight glass in which measurement is made by reading the position of liquid level on the calibrated scale. This type of sight glass in high pressure tanks is used with appropriate safety precautions. The glass tube must have a small inside diameter and a thick wall.

When the liquid in the tank is under some external pressure, the pressure can be nullified by connecting the sight glass as indicated.

Remote indication

Liquid level in either open tank or closed tank can be measured by sight glass or gauge glass technique. It can be controlled by the operator in the control room by means of monitoring the sight glass fixed at different places of tank with the help of CCTV system. OCD camera is focused at the sight glass or gauge glass and viewed in the control room through a monitor. The image below illustrates the block diagram of the remote indication of level measurement.

Ranges of gauge glass:

The standard practice is not to go in for a glass tube of more than 900mm length. In case the height of the tank is more than 900mm, two or more sight glass level gau ges are provided at different levels. This type of gauge is made to withstand pressures of 150 kg/cm^2 of steam pressures at 250’C or 450kg/cm^2.

Advantages of gauge glass:

  1. Direct reading is possible.
  2. Special designs are available for use upto 3000’c and 650 kg/cm^2.
  3. Glassless designs are available in numerous materials for corrosion resistance.

Disadvantages of gauge glass:

  1. The main disadvantage is that, it is read where the tank is located which is not always convenient.
  2. Since sight glasses are located outside the tanks, the liquid in the sight glass may freeze in clod weather even though the liquid inside the tank does not, and thus, it may cause error in the reading.
  3. Heavy, viscous liquids or liquids containing material which fall out of solution and clog the tube cannot be measured satisfactory by sight glass.
  4. Overlapping gauges needed for long level spans.
  5. Accuracy and readability depends on cleanliness of glass and fluid.


Construction and Working of Float level switch

The most known and simple level switch consists of a float which is mounted on a moveable arm and magnetically coupled to a micro switch (outside the process). Also versions exist with a spherical float, which contains a small magnet and move upwards a tube. In the tube one or more reed relays are placed. The reed relays will switch as the (magnetic) float passes by. The image below shows a simple float type mechanism.

Advantages of Float level switch

  1. Relatively simple.
  2. It is suitable for various products
  3. Low cost.

Disadvantages of Float level switch

  1. Requires a certain mounting
  2. No reproduction switch point
  3. There is a malfunction in case of build-up.
  4. It is not fail-safe.


List of Instruments and Methods used in Level Measurements:

In this post I will list out all the Instruments and Methods used in Level Measurements.

  1. Level measurement using gauge glass technique.
  2. Float type level indication
  3. Float level switch
  4. Float / rope method
  5. Float operated spring loaded level switch
  6. Magnetic float device
  7. Level measurement using displacer and torque tube
  8. Air purge system/bubbler system
  9. Thermal level sensors
  10. Low level conductivity switch
  11. Thermal level sensor with heater and probes
  12. Capsule type thermal level sensor
  13. Expansion type thermal level sensor
  14. Hydrostatic pressure method
  15. Differential pressure method
  16. Level measurement using resistance tapes
  17. Capacitance level detection
  18. Radiometric level detection
  19. Ultrasonic sensors
  20. Microwave time of flight method
  21. Non-conducting optical level sensor
  22. Optical sludge level detector
  23. Light refraction type level switch
  24. Level detection using fiber optics
  25. Radar level transmitters
  26. Laser level devices
  27. Level switches


Virtual Instrumentation Based projects with Abstract

I have collected a list of projects with abstract based on virtual Instrumentation  for my reader, select the topic that you find it interesting and do a great project.

Measure And Test System Of Belt Driving Based On Labview

Abstract—For the sake of overcoming the shortcoming of the traditional belt driving system such as manual work date reading and large human errors, The belt-driven test system based on LabVIEW is developed, which is composed of mechanism, data collection device, DC PWM system, electromagnetic brake, photoelectricity velocity sensor and pressure sensor. Based on the virtual instrument technology, a humanized human-computer interface is designed. In the system, the test of various parameters including rotate speed of belt pulley, output power, Elastic slide rate ?? and drive efficiency ?? are automatically realized. Experiments explain that the system owns high realtime performance and dependability, and that it has a good application prospect.

Data Acquisition System Based On Labview For Abs Dynamic Simulation Test Stand

Abstract - Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) has become a standard configuration for vehicles. We created a virtual environment to approximate the external conditions by using ABS dynamic simulation test stand to test the performance of ABS. Measurement and analysis of the test stand are two important issues for ensuring the high quality of ABS. In this paper, an automatic measurement and examination platform based on powerful software LabVIEW is designed and implemented. LabVIEW is easy for monitoring and data acquisition. Parameters of the test stand are recorded and analyzed simultaneously by applying LabVIEW. In order to make the testers immerse in the movement environment, we created an animation interface which can supply real-time driving scene according to the running state of the test stand. The complex animation of driving scene is carried out with programming.

Pc-Based System For Level Transducer Interfacing

Abstract— Many applications rely on accurate readings from level transducers for a correct behaviour of complex systems. Large chemical and food industry plants employ large numbers of such devices which have to generate a correct behaviour and provide an accesible reading of the data. This paper presents an application for level measurement using appropiate signal conditioning and data aquisition hardware. We start by presenting the physical principles of level transducers and their classification. Signal conditioning, as an essential factor to obtaining correct readings is also highly regarded. The advantages of PC-based systems are then observed (compatibility, low-cost) along with the additional benefits brought by developing the software application in a graphical programming environment such as LabVIEW. We describe in depth the hardware system involved and the functionality of the written software. We add considerations regarding the performance of the overall system including hardware and software features. One interesting fact is that we have run the data aquistion application in an virtualized environment so we are able to make a performance-wise comparison among the virtualized and non-virtualized scenarios. The main output of the paper is the a software application for the measurement of the liquid level in a knownvolume tank, which can be easily deployed across multiple computers due to its stand-alone characteristic. It is an appropiate tool for teaching and research projects and can easily be extended for the more stringent requirements of industrial tasks, such as reliabilty and compatibility with existing industrial systems.

A Multisensor Intelligent Device For Real-Time Multiphase Flow Metering In Oil Fields

Abstract—In this paper, a new multiphase flow metering device for real-time measurement of oil, gas, and water flow rates is presented. It is composed of several electrical and acoustic sensors whose signals are digitalized and processed by a multilayer neural network. This latest uses the physical models of multiphase fluids to reduce the complexity of the parameter space while improving its accuracy. Furthermore, to overcome the uncertainties of the electrical sensors in the range of 40%–60% and above 90% water- cut (i.e., ranges where most of the multiphase flow meter fail), two rings of high- and low-frequency ultrasonic sensors are used for low and high gas fractions, respectively. The results of experiments that have been conducted in an in-house laboratory-scale multiphase flow loop show that real-time classification for up to 90% gas fraction can be achieved with less than 10% relative error.

A Laboratory Testbed For Embedded Fuzzy Control

This paper presents a novel scheme called “Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control of a Real Time Nonlinear System.” The idea is based upon the fact that project-based learning motivates students to learn actively and to use their engineering skills acquired in their previous years of study. It also fosters initiative and focuses students attention on authentic realworld problems. At the same time, it enhances their learning. Students gain hands-on experience and improve their skills in product development, self-directed learning, teamwork, and project management. There has been a tremendous rise in the popularity of intelligent control techniques like fuzzy logic for use in industrial control applications in recent times. These techniques, which were primarily conceived for nonlinear control applications, are best implemented using embedded controllers, which can use their capabilities to the maximum. While courses in electrical and computer engineering cover several areas like digital and analog integrated circuits, microprocessors and control Systems, and process control, few of these integrate all these areas with focus on the application of intelligent techniques in real-time systems. Also, there is a growing need in industry for engineers who can perform software design and system integration for various applications in embedded control. This paper aims at developing such a practical task as one of the major projects in the eighth semester of the program offered by the Instrumentation and Control Engineering (ICE) Department of Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT), Delhi University, India, to design a real-time embedded controller implementing an intelligent control technique, fuzzy logic, for control applications. These applications might, for example, be level control, flow control, or pressure control. The paper discusses an example of a real-time pressure control system for which a microcontroller- based fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has been simulated and implemented with satisfactory results.

Application Of Prognostic And Health Management Technology On Aircraft Fuel System

Prognostic and Health Management (PHM), which could provide the ability of fault detection (FD), fault isolation (FI) and estimation of remaining useful life (RUL), has been applied to detect and diagnose device faults and assess its health status, with aiming to enhance device reliability, safety, and reduce its maintenance costs. In this paper, taking an aircraft fuel System as an example, with virtual instrument technology and computer simulation technology, an integrated approach of signal processing method and model-based method is introduced to build the virtual simulation software of aircraft fuel PHM system for overcoming the difficulty in obtaining the failures information from the real fuel system. During the process of constructing the aircraft fuel PHM system, the first step is to analyze the fuel system failure modes and status parameters that can identify the failure modes. The main failure modes are determined as joints looseness, pipe broken, nozzle clogging, and fuel tank leakage. The status parameters are fuel pressure and fuel flow. Then, the status parameter model is constructed to imitate the behavior of sensor which detecting fuel system status. On this basis, utilizing the signal processing module provided by Labview software, the outputs from the virtual sensors, which collect the failure data, are processed to realize the simulation of failure detection and failure diagnosis. All the result shows that the virtual simulation software well accomplishes the task of the aircraft fuel system failure detection and diagnosis.

Implementation Of A Fully Automated Greenhouse Using Scada Tool Like Labview

The paper discusses the automation of a free-standing greenhouse using Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The end product is expected to give the farmer or enduser a kiosk type approach. Entire greenhouse operation will be governed and monitored through this kiosk. This approach is fairly novel considering the unified system design

Labview Based Simulation System For The Output Characteristics Of Pv Cells And The Influence Of Internal Resistance On It

By using LabVIEW as software, a model of solar cells based on its output characteristic is built. The output characteristics of silicon solar cells and the maximum power point tracking system are simulated under different solar radiations. The influence of the internal resistance to the maximum power point and the fill factor of silicon solar cells are also simulated. The simulation results verify the nonlinear output characteristic of silicon solar cell and the system is proved to be very effective in determining the most appropriate load to stabilize the maximum power point of the cell. It is also proved by the results that the internal resistance is a key factor to the maximum power point and the fill factor of solar cells.

IRIS Recognition

Sorry Abstract not available

A Labview Based Virtual Instrument For On-Line Inductios Motor Parameters Identification

Sorry Abstract not available


Paced breathing devices are designed and used for exactly that... paced breathing. Often when a researcher is conducting an experiment that requires analyzing biological signals, the number of variables are reduced by keeping all the subject’s rate of breaths per minute (BPM) the same. Presently there exists both software and hardware that serves the purpose of this task. This project has combined both of these to build a new apparatus using the latest technology. Instead of a hardware device which is difficult to manipulate once constructed, the software package LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) is used to construct this device. LabVlEW is a icon driven package which parallels actual electrical components. If the situation arises in which changes need to be made, they can be performed relatively easily assuming there is some knowledge of the software at hand. The convenience of this arises because manipulations can be made without the use of a soldering iron or any other tool with the exception of a mouse.

Labview-Based Universal Battery Monitoring And Management System

In this paper the main principles and the general structure of battery monitoring and management systems (BMS) are explained. Furthermore, a newly developed, highly accurate and inexpensive data acquisition system for BMS is presented. The modular measuring system consists of two different types of monitoring units, a battery block-voltage monitoring unit and a battery current- and temperature monitoring unit. Following the discussion of the measuring hardware, a LabView realization of a universal BMS software is described in detail. Due to the flexible design of the LabView BMS, the system is able to perform control and surveillance activities for any kind of battery application and battery technology (e.g. Pb, VRLA, NiCd, NiMH etc.). The BMS was originally designed for VRLR batteries in uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS), but was also tested in electric vehicles (VW CityStromer, BMW).

Development Of A Virtual Instrument For Data Acquisition And Analysis Of The Phonocardiogram

A medical virtual instrument has been developed to acquire and analyze the phonocardiogram (PCG), the heart sound and murmur signal. This instrument consists of a Pentium 200 computer running Windows95, equipped with LabVIEW software and a plug-in data acquisition board, and a two-channel custom designed bio-signal preamplifier. The bio-signal preamplifier allows the data acquisition board to acquire both the PCG and the electrocardiogram (ECG). LabVIEW software modules have been developed to create virtual instrument’s front panels for the following functions: to manage patient information and data files, to capture and display current ECG and heart sound signals while saving or analyzing previous acquired signals, to perform the spectral and time-frequency analysis of the heart sounds and murmurs, and to review the previous recordings. This instrument can be used to display the PCG and to analyze the individual heart sound and murmur for the detection of heart valve diseases. It can also be used to analyze the carotid bruit for the diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis. This study demonstrated that a LabVIEW-based medical virtual instrument provides a low-cost, reliable, and flexible solution for data acquisition and analysis of the PCG and carotid bruit.

Open-Loop Motor Speed Control With Labview

Sorry Abstract not available

Towards An Internet-Based Virtual-Wire Environment With Virtual Instrumentation

An Internet-based virtual-wire application that uses virtual instrumentation to achieve a continuous control of a closed loop control system is presented. The system acquires data from remote signal sources and publishes them via the Internet in the real-time, while enabling the remote user to send control signals from the web-browser to the server application for the control of a PID based control system. The system involves the development of the server application using LabVIEW graphical programming language and the client application, which is a Java Applet embedded to a HTML format. Problems and limitations of achieving stable continuous control of the system by the remotely licated computers are discussed. It was found that continuous control of a real time system via the Internet is possible, but a sustained virtual wire application with the current limitations of Internet technology is impossible.

Closed-Loop Position Control System Using Labview

An Internet-based virtual-wire application that uses virtual instrumentation to achieve a continuous control of a closed loop control system is presented. The system acquires data from remote signal sources and publishes them via the Internet in the real-time, while enabling the remote user to send control signals from the web-browser to the server application for the control of a PID based control system. The system involves the development of the server application using LabVIEW graphical programming language and the client application, which is a Java Applet embedded to a HTML format. Problems and limitations of achieving stable continuous control of the system by the remotely licated computers are discussed. It was found that continuous control of a real time system via the Internet is possible, but a sustained virtual wire application with the current limitations of Internet technology is impossible

A Labview Based Data Acquisition System For Vibration Monitoring And Analysis

Sorry Abstract not available

Effective Simulation Of Signals For Testing Ecg Analyzer

In this paper the solution of the specialized measuring system for electrocardiography (ECG) signal recording and introductory recognition is presented. The project aims at designing the complete PC-based Virtual Instrument as a “testing platform” for acquisition, processing, presenting, and distributing ECG data. A new design involving the latest technique in signal simulation was developed to create a controllable model of the electrocardiography signal. Then it was implemented for testing of the developed QRS detection algorithm, based on the time-frequency analysis method. The processing stage involving discrete wavelet transform was used to detect QRS complexes in the ECG signal. By using the controlled signal model and the real ones, the algorithm was shown to be advantageous in reducing ventilation artifacts and motion noise, resulting in good accuracy.

Remote Calibration Using Mobile, Multiagent Technology

Instrument calibration, though unavoidable, is extensively time and resource consuming. It often involves a distinct layer of data management and security. Since many of the available digital instruments are provided with communication interfaces, one can build a remote calibration system from the actual hardware and a computing unit with Internet connection capabilities. This paper, after showing a simple client–server architecture, discusses how the use of mobile, multiagent techniques is expected to solve most of the security issues, working as well and effectively as a traditional, agent-free client–server architecture.


Fuzzy logic control

Introduction to Fuzzy logic control

In fuzzy logic control the experience of human process operator, is incorporated in design of the controller. This logic controller provides a means of converting a linguistic control strategy based on operates knowledge into an automatic control strategy, linguistic variables are quantities like high, medium, low, etc., fuzzy logic is multivalued logic which enhances man machine interaction. Fuzzy logic is implemented using fuzzy sets.

A set is a well defined collection of objects. A crisp set is one which identities whether the object is present in that collection or not.

The function A(x) is such that

That is the object x will either belong to set or not.

Fuzzy set is one that allows partial membership of object in that set here the degree to which a variable is member of a given set is indicated.

Let X be a set and x is an element of X. then fuzzy set A is given by

A = {A(x)/x} ; x E X

A(x) given degree of membership and has a range of 0 to 1. it indicates that the degree of membership of an element x in a fuzzy set A ranges from 0 to 1 where 0 indicates null membership. 1 indicates full membership, and intermediate values represent partial membership.

Advantages of Fuzzy logic control:

  1. Relates input to output in linguistics terms; easily understood.
  2. Cheaper because they are easier to design.
  3. Increased robustness.
  4. Can achieve less overshoot & oscillation.
  5. Can achieve steady state in a shorter time interval.
  6. Simplify knowledge acquisition & representation.

Disadvantages of fuzzy logic control

  1. Hard to develop a model from a fuzzy system.
  2. Require more fine tuning and simulation before operational.


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